Beneficiary is liable for Undue Influence

How to Prove That a Trust Resulted from Undue Influence

  • Trusts and wills are important legal tools that carry out a person’s wishes with respect to their property. When undue influence from an individual, group, or company overcomes a person’s will, some people can challenge these wishes in court. Proof of undue influence may invalidate a will or trust altogether.

Family members and friends should challenge trusts that undue influence helped to produce, because such trusts do not accurately reflect the wishes of the trust grantor. You can use litigation to promote the grantor’s wishes and protect that person from future undue influence. The experienced probate attorneys at the McCandless firm focus on litigation of improper trusts and estates. They have the knowledge and skill necessary to successfully prove the effects of undue influence.

What Is Undue Influence?

The California Welfare and Institutions Code defines undue influence as excessive persuasion that (1) causes another person to act or refrain from acting by overcoming that person’s free will, and (2) results in inequity. A court considers many factors in determining the existance of undue influence. These include the vulnerability of the victim, the influencer’s apparent authority, the equity of the result, and the actions or tactics used by the influencer. These tactics may include control over the necessaries of life, medication, the victim’s interactions with others, access to information, or sleep. It can also include the use of affection, intimidation, coercion, or initiation of changes in personal or property rights.

When examining the changes in personal or property rights, a court may consider the use of haste or secrecy in effecting those changes, making changes at inappropriate times and places, and claims of expertise in effecting changes. The California legislature, through the Elder Abuse Act, has enacted serious legal protections for vulnerable adults who may find themselves susceptible to financial abuse.

California probate law also has many strict provisions that carry harsh results for those who would attempt to benefit from undue influence. Section 21380 of the California Probate Code creates a presumption of undue influence for gifts made under dubious circumstances. These include gifts made to the person who drafted a donative instrument (such as a will or trust), gifts made to a transcriber of such an instrument who is also in a fiduciary relationship with the grantor, and the care custodian of a dependent adult (if the instrument was made during the time the custodian rendered care services, or within 90 days before or after such services were rendered). Employees, relatives, and cohabitants of these persons are also presumed to exert undue influence if a gift is made.

To overcome this statutory presumption, a beneficiary must prove—by clear and convincing evidence—that the gift was not the product of undue influence. Clear and convincing evidence is a higher standard than the civil burden of a preponderance of the evidence, making it more difficult to prove. Beneficiaries who are unsuccessful in an attempt to overcome the presumption of undue influence are also responsible for all costs and attorney’s fees related to their case.

What to Do If a Trust Was Created, Modified, or Revoked as the Result of Undue Influence

In addition to the remedies provided by the Elder Abuse Act, Section 17200 of the California Probate Code provides mechanisms by which a trustee or beneficiary may petition the probate court to determine the existence of a trust or the validity of a provision of a trust.

The beneficiary must first file a petition with the probate court, then will have the opportunity to present evidence to the court about what tactics were used, what the grantor’s true intentions were, and how the influencer was able to change those intentions. The court must then determine whether the grantor was victimized by undue influence.

If so, the court must determine which actions resulted from undue influence so it can rescind them. If, for example, the trust itself was formed as the result of undue influence, the court may need to entirely rescind the trust. On the other hand, a court may recind a modification while leaving the trust otherwise intact. A court may undo the revocation of a trust by simply reinstating it. The court must determine which specific acts resulted from undue influence to determine which acts were valid and which were not.

An experienced probate litigator can help beneficiaries determine the best legal tools for addressing any undue influence that may have resulted in a trust’s formation, modification, or revocation. A probate action to challenge the validity of the trust can protect the beneficiary’s property interest in the trust, and also ensure that the trust effectuates the true wishes of the grantor.

In situations where the grantor is still alive, it is still important to consider the possibility of further undue influence. Continued influence may impair property rights in retirement accounts, Social Security income, real estate holdings, investment, and even cash. Undue influence can also restrict access to medication, healthcare, sleep, or basic hygiene.

Carefully consider and investigate the safety of the grantor. If an assisted living facility or care provider is exerting undue influence over a vulnerable adult, a police investigation may prove necessary. Healthcare regulators and authorities may also need to become involved to prevent the facility from exerting undue influence over other vulnerable patients. An experienced alder law attorney can also help beneficiaries determine the best method of pursuing civil, criminal, and administrative remedies against such care providers.

Legal Tools to Protect the Rights of Family Members, Friends, and Testators

If you believe that a trust or estate was formed as the result of undue influence, contact a probate attorney as soon as possible. It is not just your legal rights that are in jeopardy—undue influence impairs the legal rights of a grantor as well.

Call McCandless Law today to schedule your free consultation with one of the attorneys at McCandless Law. Our Orange County probate litigators have extensive experience in proving undue influence to successfully challenge invalid trusts and wills. You can reach our office at (877) 227-4341 thru-out California

Forfeiture ??

California Asset Forfeiture Laws

Updated Asset forfeiture in California: When can the government seize my property?

Asset forfeiture is when the government takes a person’s property because it suspects the property was used in committing a crime or was obtained by way of criminal activity. California’s asset forfeiture laws can be used to seize most types of property, including:

  • houses,
  • boats,
  • cars, and
  • money.

Examples of asset forfeiture include:

  • police taking ownership of several kilos of cocaine in a drug possession case.
  • the government keeping a hunting knife that was used in an assault with a deadly weapon case.
  • Cops taking a machine that a criminal used to make a counterfeit product.

Many asset forfeitures take place in:

  • cases involving drug crimes, and
  • cases involving organized crimes.

Note that before the government can legally forfeit property in these cases,

  1. a defendant typically has to be convicted of a crime related to the property, and
  2. the government has to comply with certain procedural rules.

Our California criminal defense attorneys will highlight the following in this article:

  • 1. What is asset forfeiture
  • 2. What type of property is subject to forfeiture?
  • 3. Equitable sharing and Senate Bill 443
  • 4. What about asset forfeiture in California drug cases?
    • 4.1. Conviction requirement
    • 4.2. Exceptions
    • 4.3. Required procedures
      • 4.3.1. Summary forfeiture
      • 4.3.2. Administrative asset forfeiture
      • 4.3.3. Judicial forfeiture
  • 5. What is asset forfeiture in organized crime cases?
    • 5.1. Activity that can lead to asset forfeiture
    • 5.2. Required procedures
person holding $100 bills in front of a sports car and expensive house - all 3 of which could be seized based on California asset forfeiture laws

Asset forfeiture is when the government takes a person’s property because it suspects the property was either: used in committing a crime, or obtained via a criminal activity.

1. What is asset forfeiture?

Asset forfeiture is when the government takes a person’s property because it suspects the property was either:

  1. used in committing a crime, or
  2. obtained via criminal activity.

Note that forfeiture can only occur after a civil proceeding.1

The proceeding is a lawsuit which the government files against the property it wants to take. Note that this means that the property is the defendant in the suit. The defendant is not the property’s owner.2

In order to obtain the property, the government has to show that:

  • based upon the preponderance of the evidence,
  • the property is connected to criminal activity.

Preponderance of the evidence” is a lower standard of proof in comparison to the standard of “beyond a reasonable doubt,” which is used in criminal cases.

The property owner in these matters is usually convicted of a crime before his property can be taken. Note, though, that there are times when a forfeiture can take place without a finding that:

  • the property owner committed a crime, or
  • a crime was even committed.3

Example: Police take a gun from a person after they arrest him for negligent discharge of a firearm. The cops can keep the gun and take ownership of it. But they can only legally do so if they name the gun in a lawsuit. A prosecutor would then have to prove during this suit that the firearm was connected to a criminal activity.

Note that while the police can take the gun before a person gets convicted of a crime, they usually cannot forfeit it until a defendant is convicted of a crime.

2. What type of property is subject to forfeiture?

California’s asset forfeiture laws allow police officers and prosecutors to seize most types of property.

Some examples include:

  • a weapon that is involved in an assault with a deadly weapon case,4
  • telecommunications or computer equipment used to commit a computer crime, such as internet fraud,5
  • animals, if someone is convicted of animal abuse and cruelty,6
  • vehicles used to commit a crime, such as the transport of stolen property,
  • machines used to break the law, like using a machine to make counterfeit trademarks,
  • illegal drugs or the machinery, land or buildings used to make those drugs, and
  • any property interest acquired through a pattern of criminal profiteering activity.

3. Equitable sharing and Senate Bill 443

Equitable sharing” refers to a controversial practice within California asset forfeiture laws.

The practice allows California police to avoid certain state forfeiture laws by handing the seized property over to federal law enforcement agencies.

Once this is done, the property gets handled under federal forfeiture laws, which are more relaxed in comparison to California laws.

When handed over, a federal agency could sell the property and:

  • local and California state agencies would get 80% of the proceeds, and
  • the federal agency would keep the other 20%.

Senate Bill 443 was signed into law in 2016. The relatively new law:

  1. placed several restrictions on equitable sharing practices, and
  2. closed ways that California could circumvent state forfeiture laws by giving seized property to the feds.
prescription drug bottles

Most California forfeitures take place in connection with the State’s drug laws.

4. What about asset forfeiture in California drug cases?

Most California forfeitures take place in connection with the State’s drug laws.

These cases often raise questions regarding:

  1. whether a person has to be convicted prior to forfeiture, and
  2. what procedures must the government follow before it can forfeit property.

4.1. Conviction requirement

Many drug forfeiture cases require:

  • the government to first convict a person of a drug offense,
  • prior to forfeiture.

In particular, there has to be a conviction of an “underlying or related criminal action” before there can be a forfeiture of the following property:

  1. a boat, airplane, or vehicle,
  2. money, securities, etc. worth up to $40,000, and
  3. any real estate (buildings and lands).7

Note, though, a distinction between:

  • the government seizing property, and
  • the forfeiture of that property.

The government can seize property without a defendant being convicted. But ownership of the property only passes to the government once a conviction is made.8

4.2. Exceptions to the requirement

There are two exceptions to the above conviction requirement. The first is that drug-related property can be forfeited, without a conviction, if:

  1. there is a defendant for an underlying criminal action, and
  2. he fails to appear for his case.9

In this event, the only condition prior to forfeiture is that:

  • the government must make a “prima facie” case that
  • the property in question is subject to asset forfeiture under the law.10

This just means that it has to supply some basic evidence that the property is related to a crime.11

The second conviction exception is related to cash or securities worth more than $40,000. These can be forfeited even if no one has been convicted of a drug crime in connection with them.12

But, for forfeiture to occur, the government must prove that:

  • the money came from or was going to be used for
  • illegal drug transactions.

Note that it only needs to prove this by “clear and convincing evidence.” This is a lower burden of proof than “beyond a reasonable doubt.”13

4.3. Required procedures

The government does have to follow certain procedures, in drug cases, before it can declare forfeited property. Depending on the facts of the case, these may take the form of:

  • summary procedures,
  • administrative procedures, or
  • judicial procedures.

4.3.1. Summary forfeiture

Summary forfeiture is when the government can:

  1. forfeit certain Schedule I drugs, and
  2. do so without any procedure of any kind.14

The drugs that are subject to the summary procedure are:

  • marijuana,
  • heroin,
  • ecstasy,
  • LSD, and
  • peyote.

As to marijuana, please note that:

  • if the government seizes marijuana, then it has to give it back if
  • a person had the right to possess it legally under California’s medical marijuana laws.

4.3.2. Administrative forfeiture

Administrative procedures get used in forfeiture cases involving:

  • personal property (no real estate),
  • worth less than $25,000.

In these cases, the police must give public notice of the following before it can forfeit the property:

  • a description of the property,
  • its appraised value,
  • the date and location of seizure,
  • the facts justifying the seizure, and
  • instructions for challenging the taking.15

Once notice is given, a person has 30 days to challenge the seizure of property.16 If no challenge, the police can:

  1. sell the property, and
  2. keep the proceeds.17

If a person challenges the seizure, then judicial procedures get applied.

4.3.3. Judicial procedure

Judicial procedures get used in forfeiture cases when:

  1. a party has challenged the seizure of property worth less than $25,000, or
  2. the police have seized property worth more than $25,000.18

A civil trial must be held in these cases before the police can forfeit the property.

At trial, a prosecutor must prove the following in order for forfeiture to occur:

  1. the property was used to commit a crime or bought with money gained illegally, and
  2. the property owner knew that a crime was being committed and agreed to it.19

5. What is asset forfeiture in organized crime cases?

In addition to drug cases, many asset forfeitures take place in cases involving organized crime.

Questions often arise in these cases on:

  1. what activity can lead to asset forfeiture, and
  2. what procedures must the government follow before it can forfeit property.

5.1. Activity that can lead to asset forfeiture

In order for the police to be able to forfeit property in an organized crime case,

  • there has to be a conviction, and
  • the conviction must be for a certain activity.

This certain activity basically means that the conviction must involve a crime where:

  1. there was a pattern of criminal behavior, and
  2. the crime was done for financial gain.20

A pattern means that the defendant committed two or more connected crimes.21

Many types of offenses will include this type of activity. Some examples include:

  • child pornography, unlawful under Penal Code 311 PC,
  • extortion, unlawful under Penal Code 518 PC, and
  • receiving stolen property, unlawful under Penal Code 496 PC.

5.2. Required procedures

The government must follow certain procedures in order to legally forfeit property in organized crime cases.

These procedures include:

  1. a prosecutor filing a petition with the court,
  2. notice of the property being given to anyone with an ownership interest in it, and
  3. the prosecutor publishing notice of the property in a local newspaper (this is in some cases).22

A party with an interest in the property can challenge the forfeiture. This challenge, though, must be made within 30 days of receiving notice that the property was taken.23

If a challenge is made, then a hearing must be held to determine whether the property can be forfeited. Forfeiture will be allowed if:

  • a prosecutor can prove beyond a reasonable doubt
  • that the property is subject to forfeiture.

For additional help…

Receptionists at criminal defense law firm

Contact us for help.

For additional guidance or to discuss your case with a criminal defense attorney, we invite you to contact us at 925-957-9797.

Legal References:

  1. People v. Madeyski (2001) 94 Cal.App.4th 659.
  2. People v. US $6.500 Currency (1989) 215 Cal.App.3d 1542.
  3. Same.
  4. California Penal Code 245e.
  5. California Penal Code 502.01.
  6. California Penal Code 597g1.
  7. California Health & Safety Code 11488.4i.
  8. California Health & Safety Code 11471.
  9. California Health & Safety Code 11488.4k.
  10. See same.
  11. See same.
  12. California Health & Safety Code 11488.4i4.
  13. See same.
  14. California Health & Safety Code 11475.
  15. California Health & Safety 11488.4j.
  16. California Health & Safety Code 11488.5a1.
  17. California Health & Safety Code 11488.4j.
  18. California Health & Safety Code 11488.4a HS and 11488.4j.
  19. California Health & Safety Code 11488.5d1-d2.
  20. California Penal Code 186.3a.
  21. California Penal Code 186.2a.
  22. California Penal Code 186.4a.
  23. California Penal Code 186.5.
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