Tag Archives: unlawful detainer

Keep the trustees deed out of evidence in the unlawful detainer

9 Aug

TIMOTHY L. MCCANDLESS, ESQ. SBN 147715
LAW OFFICES OF TIMOTHY L. MCCANDLESS
820 Main Street, Ste. 1
Martinez, CA

(925) 957-9797 Telephone
(909) 382-9956 Facsimile

Attorney for Defendant Zenkarla S. Salazar

SUPERIOR COURT OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA
IN AND FOR THE COUNTY OF SANTA CLARA

GMAC MORTGAGE, LLC FKA GMAC MORTGAGE CORPORATION,

Plaintiff,

vs.

ELIZABETH L. DE VRIES; ZENKARLA S. SALAZAR
and DOES 1 through 10, Inclusive

Defendant. Case No.: 111CV198467

DEFENDANT’S MOTION IN LIMINE TO EXCLUDE ALL EVIDENCE

To the Court, to Plaintiff, GMAC MORTGAGE, LLC FKA GMAC MORTGAGE CORPORATION, [hereinafter “GMAC”] and its attorney of record:
PLEASE TAKE NOTICE that, on Friday, August 5, 2011, at 9:00 AM, or as soon thereafter as the matter may be heard, Defendant, ZENKARLA S. SALAZAR, will in limine judicii move the court, and hereby does move, for an order excluding from trial all evidence proffered by Plaintiff GMAC.
The motion will be heard in Department 19 of the Santa Clara Superior Court.
The motion will be brought pursuant to Evidence Code sections 353 and 400 et seq., Code of Civil Procedure section 430.10(b), and related decisional law.
The ground of the motion will be that the Unlawful Detainer Complaint, fails to disclose the reason why Plaintiff supposedly complied with Civil Code section 2932.5 and Civil Code section 2924; and accordingly the Complaint fails to state a claim for which relief may be granted, and thus there remain no issues of fact for which relevant evidence might be adduced at trial.
More importantly, it is acknowledged that banks, lenders and third party buyers have a secured interest in deed which was assigned and recorded as mandated by Civil Code Section 2932.5. In this case, plaintiff did not have the power of sale as mandated by Civil Code Section 2924 because there is no evidence that the secured interest of the current beneficiary has been properly acknowledged and recorded.
The motion will be based upon this notice of motion and motion, the attached Memorandum of Points and Authorities, on the pleadings and other papers on file for the above-captioned case, and upon such other and further evidence as the court may deem fit.
//
DATED: August 4, 2011 ________________________________________
LAW OFFICES OF TIMOTHY L. MCCANDLESS
By: Timothy P. McCandless, Esq.
Attorney for DEFENDANT
ZENKARLA S. SALAZAR

MEMORANDUM OF POINTS AND AUTHORITIES
I.
FACTUAL BACKGROUND

Defendant Zenkarla S. Salazar is a tenant that holds a valid lease up and until February 2013 with the subject property located at 1568 Valley Crest Drive, San Jose, CA 95131. This lease agreement was submitted with her answer and was entered before the default. Defendant Salazar demonstrated that she is a bonafide tenant and has a three-year lease at the time she was served with the Unlawful Detainer complaint.
Defendant Elizabeth L. De Vries was the original trustor of the subject property and executed the Deed of Trust recorded on February 23, 2006 at the County Recorder of Santa Clara County. Plaintiff claimed that a default occurred on the note, that the Trustee recorded a Notice of Default and initiated this unlawful non-judicial foreclosure. After the sale occurred, GMAC took over the title of the subject property.
This Unlawful Detainer action is commenced and prosecuted pursuant to California Code of Civil Procedure Section 1161a(b). Where real property is sold at a trustee sale in accordance with sections 2924 et seq., of the California Civil Code under a power of sale contained in a deed of trust, the persons who executed said deed of trust, their successor in interest, their tenants and sub-tenants, may be evicted in an action of Unlawful Detainer. California Code of Civil Procedure Section 1161a(b)(3).
The sole evidence being offered by Plaintiff is the Deed of Trust and the Trustee’s Deed Upon sale, which is inadmissible evidence, because Plaintiff GMAC cannot and has not laid the proper foundational proof that it was ever maintained a secured interest in this particular property.
Judicial notice will not suffice to establish Plaintiffs burden. „Judicial notice is the recognition and acceptance by the court, for use by the trier of fact or by the court, of the existence of a matter of law or fact that is relevant to an issue in the action without requiring formal proof of the matter.‟” (Lockley v. Law Office of Cantrell, Green, Pekich, Cruz & McCort (2001) 91 Cal.App.4th 875, 882.)
“Judicial notice may not be taken of any matter unless authorized or required by law.” (Evid. Code, § 450.) “Matters that are subject to judicial notice are listed in Evidence Code sections 451 and 452. A matter ordinarily is subject to judicial notice only if the matter is reasonably beyond dispute. [Citation.]” (Fremont Indemnity Co. v. Fremont General Corp. (2007) 148 Cal.App.4th 97, 113.)
“Taking judicial notice of a document is not the same as accepting the truth of its contents or accepting a particular interpretation of its meaning.” (Joslin v. H.A.S. Ins. Brokerage (1986) 184 Cal.App.3d 369, 374.) While courts take judicial notice of public records, they do not take notice of the truth of matters stated therein. (Love v. Wolf (1964) 226 Cal.App.2d 378, 403.) “When judicial notice is taken of a document, . . . the truthfulness and proper interpretation of the document are disputable.” (StorMedia, Inc. v. Superior Court (1999) 20 Cal.4th 449, 457, fn. 9 (StorMedia).)
This court considered the scope of judicial review of a recorded document in Poseidon Development, Inc. v. Woodland Lane Estates, LLC (2007) 152 Cal.App.4th 1106 (Poseidon). “[T]he fact a court may take judicial notice of a recorded deed, or similar document, does not mean it may take judicial notice of factual matters stated therein. [Citation.] For example, the First Substitution recites that Shanley „is the present holder of beneficial interest under said Deed of Trust.‟ By taking judicial notice of the First Substitution, the court does not take judicial notice of this fact, because it is hearsay and itcannot be considered not reasonably subject to dispute.” (Id. at p. 1117.)
The same situation is present here. The Substitution of Trustee recites that the Bank “is the present beneficiary under” the 2003 deed of trust. As in Poseidon, this fact is hearsay and disputed; the trial court could not take judicial notice of it. Nor does taking judicial notice of the Assignment of Deed of Trust establish that the Bank is the beneficiary under the 2003 deed of trust. The assignment recites that JPMorgan Chase Bank, “successor in interest to WASHINGTON MUTUAL BANK, SUCCESSOR IN INTEREST TO LONG BEACH MORTGAGE COMPANY” assigns all beneficial interest under the 2003 deed of trust to the Bank. The recitation that JPMorgan Chase Bank is the successor in interest to Long Beach Mortgage Company, through Washington Mutual, is hearsay. Defendants offered no evidence to establish that JPMorgan Chase Bank had the beneficial interest under the 2003 deed of trust to assign to the Bank. The truthfulness of the contents of the Assignment of Deed of Trust remains subject to dispute (StorMedia, supra, 20 Cal.4th at p. 457, fn. 9), and plaintiffs dispute the truthfulness of the contents of all of the recorded documents.
Judicial notice of the recorded documents did not establish that the Bank was the beneficiary or that CRC was the trustee under the 2003 deed of trust. Defendants failed to establish “facts justifying judgment in [their] favor” (Bono, supra, 103 Cal.App.4th at p. 1432), through their request for judicial notice.

Because the non-judicial foreclosure process is subject to strict scrutiny, and given the material failure of a condition precedent by Plaintiff and/or Plaintiff’s agent, the entire non-judicial foreclosure process is invalid. Therefore, the Deed of trust and the Trustee’s Deed Upon Sale cannot be admitted into evidence, as no lawful foundation can be laid. Robert Herrera et al., v. Deutsche Bank National Trust company et al, Third Appellate District case attached 6-28-2011.
Moreover, Defendant Salazar contends that Plaintiff never maintained a recorded interest in the subject real property at any time during the foreclosure proceedings in this case. In order to enforce the power of sale pursuant to California Civil Code section 2924, the secured instrument must be properly acknowledged and recorded pursuant to California Civil Code section 2932.5. The power of sale may only be exercised under California Code of Civil Procedure section 2924, if and only if, the secured interest of the current beneficiary has been properly acknowledged and recorded. In this instance, it was not.
Thus, there is a major substantive failure in the non-judicial foreclosure process and the transaction cannot stand. In order for GMAC to have proceeding the first instance under Civil Code section 2924 et seq., it was required to be record owner, which was not.
As such, Plaintiff GMAC is not entitled to obtain possession of the Subject Property as such evidence overcomes the rebuttable presumption of correctness of the sale.
Secured interests in real property are demonstrated by recordation so that the entire world will know that a party maintains a secured interest therein. That is why interests in real property are recorded and deeds are submitted as evidence to assert rights of interest and title. It is a fundamental precept of property law that in order to enforce the power of sale, the beneficiary of a deed of trust must be able to prove the existence of their secured interest in the subject property. Here, GMAC has never demonstrated that it ever had such a secured interest.
There are no valid recorded assignments recorded by GMAC as the new beneficiary of the Deed of Trust executed by Defendants thus, under California Civil Code Section 2924, plaintiff could enforce the power of sale. Thus, this non-judicial foreclosure of this particular property is invalid and plaintiff GMAC is not the lawful owner of this property and not entitled to obtain possession pursuant to California Civil Procedure Section 1161a.
II.
THE COURT HAS POWER TO EXCLUDE ALL EVIDENCE FROM TRIAL, ON GROUNDS ANALOGOUS TO A GENERAL DEMURRER.
The court has power to consider and grant an objection to all evidence under Evidence Code sections 353 and 400 et seq. If no cause of action or defense is stated by the respective pleading, then no “factual issue” any longer exists, and therefore no evidence may be admitted on grounds of “relevance” under Evidence Code sections 400 et seq.
It is well established that a party may bring an in limine objection in order to exclude all evidence, as a sort of general demurrer or “motion for judgment on the pleadings”. “Although not in form a motion, this method of attacking the pleading is identical in purpose to a general demurrer and motion for judgment on the pleadings and is governed by the same rules. [Citations.]” 5 WITKIN, Cal.Proc.3rd page 386, “Pleading” at §953. See also 6 WITKIN, Cal.Proc.3rd pages 571-573, “Proceedings Without Trial” at §§272-273.
According to 5 WITKIN, Cal.Proc.3rd page 340, “Pleading” at §899, a “general” demurrer concerns only the defense that the pleading does not state facts sufficient to constitute a cause of action or defense. That is precisely what defendant contends here: the Unlawful Detainer Complaint fails to state a claim for which relief may be granted, because it fails to plead a necessary element of compliance with Civil Code sections 2932.5 and 2924 et al.
III.
THE COURT MUST STRICTLY ENFORCE
THE TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A FORECLOSURE.
The harshness of non-judicial foreclosure has been recognized. “The exercise of the power of sale is a harsh method of foreclosing the rights of the grantor.” Anderson v. Heart Federal Savings (1989) 208 Cal.App.3d 202, 6 215, citing to System Inv. Corporation v. Union Bank (1971) 21 Cal.App.3d 137, 153. The statutory requirements are intended to protect the trustor from a wrongful or unfair loss of his property Moeller v. Lien (1994) 25 Cal.App.4th 822, 830; accord, Hicks v. E.T. Legg & Associates (2001) 89 Cal.App.4th 496, 503; Lo Nguyen v. Calhoun (6th District 2003) 105 Cal.App.4th 428, 440, and a valid foreclosure by the private power of sale requires strict compliance with the requirements of the statute. Miller & Starr, California Real Estate (3d ed.), Deeds of Trust and Mortgages, Chapter 10 §10.179; Anderson v. Heart Federal Sav. & Loan Assn., 208 Cal. App. 3d 202, 211 (3d Dist. 1989), reh’g denied and opinion modified, (Mar. 28, 1989); Miller v. Cote (4th Dist. 1982) 127 Cal. App. 3d 888, 894; System Inv. Corp. v. Union Bank (2d Dist. 1971) 21 Cal. App. 3d 137, 152-153; Bisno v. Sax (2d Dist. 1959) 175 Cal. App. 2d 714, 720.
It has been a cornerstone of foreclosure law that the statutory requirements, intending to protect the trustor from a wrongful or unfair loss of the property, must be complied with strictly. Miller & Starr, California Real Estate (3d ed.), Deeds of Trust and Mortgages, Chapter 10 §10.182. “Close” compliance does not count. As a result, any trustee’s sale based on a statutorily deficient Notice of Default is invalid (emphasis added). Miller & Starr, California Real Estate (3d ed.), Deeds of Trust and Mortgages, Chapter 10 §10.182; Anderson v. Heart Federal Sav. & Loan Assn. (3dDist. 1989) 208 Cal. App. 3d 202, 211, reh’g denied and opinion modified, (Mar. 28, 1989); Miller v. Cote (4th Dist. 1982) 127 Cal. App. 3d 888, 894; System Inv. Corp. v. Union Bank (2d Dist. 1971) 21 Cal. App. 3d 137, 152-153; Saterstrom v. Glick Bros. Sash, Door & Mill Co.(3d Dist. 1931) 118 Cal. App. 379.
It is a fundamental precept of property law that in order to enforce the power of sale, the beneficiary of a deed of trust must be able to prove the existence of their secured interest in the subject property. Here, GMAC has never demonstrated that it ever had such a secured interest.
Additionally, any trustee’s sale based on a statutorily deficient Notice of Trustee Sale is invalid. Anderson v. Heart Federal Sav. & Loan Assn. (3d Dist. 1989) 11 208 Cal.App. 3d 202, 211, reh’g denied and opinion modified, (Mar. 28, 1989). The California Sixth District Court of Appeal observed, “Pursuing that policy [of judicial interpretation], the courts have fashioned rules to protect the debtor, one of them being that the notice of default will be strictly construed and must correctly set forth the amounts required to cure the default.” Sweatt v. The Foreclosure Co., Inc. (1985 – 6th District) 166 Cal.App.3d 273 at 278, citing to Miller v. Cote (1982) 127 Cal.App.3d 888, 894 and SystemInv. Corp. v. Union Bank (1971) 21 Cal.App.3d 137, 152-153.
The same reasoning applies even to a notice of a trustee’s sale. Courts will set aside a foreclosure sale when there has been fraud, when the sale has been improperly, unfairly, or unlawfully conducted, or when there has been such a mistake that it would be inequitable to let it stand. Bank of America Nat. Trust & Savings Ass’n v. Reidy (1940) 15 Cal. 2d 243, 248; Whitman v. Transtate Title Co.(4th Dist. 1985) 165 Cal. App. 3d 312, 322-323; In re Worcester (9th Cir. 1987) 811 F.2d 1224, 1228. See also Smith v. Williams (1961) 55 Cal. 2d 617, 621; Stirton v. Pastor (4th Dist. 1960) 177 Cal. App. 2d 232, 234; Brown v. Busch (3d Dist. 1957) 152 Cal.App. 2d 200, 203-204.
In this case, there is no evidence whether GMAC maintained a properly acknowledged and recorded security instrument in the subject property, anytime during the non-judicial foreclosure process. The Trustee’s Deed Upon Sale was recorded on December 9, 2010 when defendant De Vries’ property was sold at a trustee sale on November 15, 20102011when they have not complied with the requirements of California non-judicial foreclosure law. The foreclosers made no reasonable efforts to insure that it is acting under the authority of a lawsuit beneficiary.
A primary concern in this matter is the fact that GMAC had no legal right to foreclose upon the home of Defendant De Vries, even if she had not paid as required, if the same GMAC has not fully complied with Civil Code section 2932.5 and 2924. The basis for its noncompliance, and why this precludes a finding that Plaintiff’s title was “duly perfected”, is set forth below.
IV.
SINCE 2008, THE ABILITY TO ENFORCE THE POWER OF SALE OF A SECURED INSTRUMENT IN REAL PROPERTY IS MANDATED BY CALIFORNIA CIVIL CODE SECTION 2932.5 WHICH ALLOWS AN ASSIGNEE TO PROCEED WITH A NON-JUDICIAL FORECLOSURE PROVIDING THAT THE ASSIGNMENT IS PROPERLY ACKNOWLEDGED AND RECORDED.

In 2008, the California Legislature added Civil Code section 2932.5. The previous section is of particular relevance here:
Where a power to sell real property is given to a mortgagee, or other encumbrancer, in an instrument intended to secure the payment of money, the power is part of the security and vests in any person who by assignment becomes entitled to payment of the money secured by the instrument. The power of sale may be exercised by the assignee if the assignment is duly acknowledged and recorded.

There is no assignment ever recorded by GMAC. See also Code of Civil Procedure section 459: “it is not necessary to state the facts showing such performance, but it may be stated generally that the party duly performed all the conditions on his part required thereby; if such allegations be controverted, the party pleading must establish on the trial the facts showing such performance.”
Nonetheless, this pleading of compliance that “[o]ne of the below necessary requirements was met by the Beneficiary:” violates another rule of pleading, namely, that allegations be made positively. “Pleading in the alternative is not permitted. The opposing party is entitled to a distinct statement of the facts claimed by the pleader to exist, and a statement in the alternative is uncertain and ambiguous. It is no answer to an objection to averments made alternatively to say that, if either of the averments is true, a cause of action is alleged. Such a pleading is vulnerable to special demurrer, and there is authority that the defect cannot be cured by verdict or by judgment by default. But where the point is raised for the first time on appeal, it is not ground for reversal if the appellant was not prejudiced by the uncertainty.” 49 Cal.Jur.3d (1979 ed.), pages 412-413, “Pleading” at §51.
The noncompliance with California’s law of pleading here is prejudicial. The issue of whether or not the lender recorded a receiver’s deed is expected to be a major factual issue at the trial. It is true that defendant SALAZAR might use contention interrogatories and other specially worded interrogatories to find out what factual theory, exactly, underlies the cryptic alternative statement that “[o]ne of the below necessary requirements was met by the Beneficiary:”. And defendant SALAZAR must still then, at that point, discover the evidence upon which Plaintiff (or, more precisely, Plaintiff’s predecessor-in-interest) relies in contending that there was compliance with California Civil Code subsection 2932.5.
CONCLUSION
The public record shows, as a matter of law, that PLAINTIFF GMAC and Plaintiff’s predecessor-in-interest did not comply with the requirement to disclose according to Code of Civil Procedure subsection 2932.5 Although the Plaintiff could supply this information and cure the pleading error here, yet such an reparative measure will not cure the invalidity of that there they complied with Civil Code 2924 and that no document was recorded with the Office of the County Recorder. Until that defect is repaired, there cannot be any “duly perfected title” that serves as the basis for Plaintiff’s Unlawful Detainer case. The case must be stopped, and that may be done by an exclusion of all evidence, as prayed for above.
Respectfully submitted,

Dated: August 4, 2011 LAW OFFICES OF
TIMOTHY MCCANDLESS ESQ.

_____________________________________
Timothy L. McCandless, Esq.,
Attorney for Defendant
ZENKARLA S. SALAZAR

 

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California Eviction Defense Manual

Chapter Outlines

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

1

Overview of Unlawful Detainer Law

I.    SCOPE OF THIS BOOK   §1.1

II.    LANDLORD’S ALTERNATIVES TO UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION   §1.2

III.    ETHICS   §1.3

IV.    SUMMARY OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER PROCESS   §1.4

A.   Description of Unlawful Detainer Action   §1.5

B.   Reduced Time Frame Governing Unlawful Detainer Procedure   §1.6

C.   Landlord Must Strictly Comply With Statutory Requirements   §1.7

D.   Notice Requirements   §1.8

E.   Bases for Terminating Tenancy; Applicable Notice   §1.9

1.   Termination Requiring 3-Day Notice (Longer Notice Permitted)   §1.10

2.   Termination Requiring 30-Day or 60-Day Notice   §1.11

3.   Termination Requiring Other Notice   §1.12

4.   Termination Requiring No Notice   §1.13

F.   Jurisdiction and Venue   §1.14

G.   Default Judgment   §1.15

H.   Bases for Defending Unlawful Detainer Actions   §1.16

I.   Trial

1.   Tenant Entitled to Jury Trial if Answer Presents Admissible Defenses   §1.17

2.   Rent and Damages Awardable to Landlord   §1.18

J.   Posttrial Motions   §1.19

K.   Execution by Sheriff   §1.20

V.    SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL TENANT RESPONSES TO LANDLORD’S ACTIONS   §1.20A

VI.    INVALIDITY OF LEASE PROVISION WAIVING TENANT’S RIGHTS   §1.21

VII.    WRIT OF IMMEDIATE POSSESSION   §1.22

VIII.    UNAVAILABILITY OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER IF TENANT IS NO LONGER IN POSSESSION OF PREMISES   §1.23

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2

Relationship of Unlawful Detainer to Other Actions

I.    ISSUES NOT COGNIZABLE IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS   §2.1

II.    COORDINATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER WITH OTHER ACTIONS   §2.2

A.   Coordination of Complex Actions   §2.2A

B.   Transfer of Noncomplex Actions   §2.2B

C.   Consolidation of Actions Pending in Same County   §2.2C

III.    CONVERSION OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION TO ACTION FOR EJECTMENT   §2.3

IV.    SEVERING POSSESSION ISSUE FROM RENT-DUE ISSUE   §2.4

V.    TENANT’S SUIT FOR DECLARATORY OR INJUNCTIVE RELIEF; STAY OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION

A.   Overview: Can Unlawful Detainer Actions Be Enjoined?  §2.5

B.   Obtaining Injunctive Relief

1.   Legal Basis; Grounds   §2.5A

2.   The Newby Exception: Adequate Remedy at Law   §2.5B

3.   Overcoming Newby Limitations   §2.5C

4.   Procedure; Bond Required   §2.5D

VI.    LANDLORD’S SUIT FOR INJUNCTIVE RELIEF   §2.6

VII.    ACTIONS AFTER ENTRY OF JUDGMENT   §2.7

VIII.    ARBITRATION PROVISION IN LEASE   §2.8

IX.    ADMINISTRATIVE MANDAMUS   §2.9

X.    BANKRUPTCY   §2.10

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3

Self-Help by Landlord

I.    USE OF SELF-HELP BY LANDLORD   §3.1

II.    FORCIBLE ENTRY AND DETAINER   §3.2

A.   Examples of Forcible Entry and Detainer   §3.3

B.   Retaking Abandoned Premises Is Not Forcible Entry or Detainer   §3.4

C.   Recovering Punitive Damages for Forcible Entry or Detainer Requires Showing of Malice   §3.5

III.    SHUTTING OFF UTILITIES OR OTHERWISE BARRING TENANT’S USE OF PROPERTY

A.   Civil Code §789.3   §3.6

B.   Remedies Under Public Utilities Code and CC §1942.2   §3.6A

IV.    OTHER ACTIONS BY LANDLORD THAT MAKE PREMISES UNINHABITABLE   §3.7

V.    SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF TENANTS IN RESIDENTIAL HOTELS   §3.8

VI.    SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF LODGERS   §3.9

VII.    SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF OCCUPANTS OF TRANSITIONAL HOUSING   §3.10

VIII.    SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF HOTEL GUESTS   §3.11

IX.    ANTI-HARASSMENT STATUTE (CC §1940.2)   §3.12

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4

Representing the Tenant; Office Procedures

I.    OFFICE PROCEDURES   §4.1

II.    LAW OFFICE AUTOMATION   §4.2

III.    LEGAL REFERENCE MATERIALS   §4.3

A.   Necessary Legal Sources and Forms   §4.4

B.   Useful Additional Library Materials   §4.5

IV.    INITIAL STEPS BEFORE DECIDING WHETHER TO REPRESENT TENANT

A.   Initial (Telephone) Contact With Prospective Client   §4.6

B.   Form: Telephone Intake Form   §4.7

C.   Scheduling Meeting With Prospective Client   §4.8

D.   Conflict of Interest in Representing Tenant

1.   Performing a Conflicts Check   §4.9

2.   Common Conflict Situations in Unlawful Detainer Actions   §4.10

E.   Initial Meeting With Prospective Client   §4.11

F.   Use of Client Interview Questionnaire   §4.12

G.   Form: Client Interview Questionnaire   §4.13

H.   Conduct of Initial Meeting   §4.14

I.   Investigate Tenant’s Relationship With Former Counsel and Any Litigation History   §4.15

J.   Contact Landlord’s Attorney for Preliminary Look at Opposing View of Case   §4.16

K.   Initial Assessment of Case   §4.17

L.   Scope of Initial Assessment   §4.18

M.   Allaying Tenant’s Fears   §4.19

V.    REPRESENTATION OF TENANT

A.   Decision to Represent Tenant   §4.20

1.   If Attorney Will Not Represent or Assist Tenant   §4.21

2.   When More Time Needed for Decision on Representation   §4.22

3.   Form: Substitution of Attorney—Civil (Without Court Order) (Judicial Council Form MC-050; Mandatory)   §4.23

4.   If Attorney and Tenant Agree That Attorney Will Represent or Assist Tenant   §4.24

5.   Disclosure Regarding Professional Liability Insurance   §4.24A

B.   Representation Agreements and Ground Rules   §4.25

1.   Delegating Tasks to Client   §4.26

2.   Contents of Representation Agreement   §4.27

3.   Form: Representation Agreement—Private Practitioner   §4.28

4.   Form: Client Retainer Agreement—Legal Services Organization   §4.29

C.   Limited Scope Representation (Unbundling)

1.   Applicable Law   §4.29A

2.   Checklist: Tenant Fee Agreement   §4.29B

D.   Deposit of Rent Due Into Client Trust Account   §4.30

E.   Form: Requirement for Deposit of Rent Into Attorney-Client Trust Account   §4.31

VI.    PROCEDURE AFTER REPRESENTATION IS UNDERTAKEN

A.   Ascertain Goal of Representation   §4.32

1.   Ascertain Whether Tenant Wants to Continue Living in Rental Unit   §4.33

2.   Goal of Representation Is Not Necessarily Successful Defense of Unlawful Detainer Action   §4.34

B.   Counsel Should Investigate Facts of Case   §4.35

C.   Determining Defense Strategy   §4.36

D.   Making Choices on Strategy and Tactics   §4.37

E.   Example of Strategic and Tactical Choices in Procedure When Defective 3-Day Notice Was Served   §4.38

1.   Strategy and Tactics: Filing Motion to Quash Service of Summons or Demurrer   §4.39

2.   Strategy and Tactics: Filing an Answer   §4.40

3.   Strategy and Tactics: Filing Motion for Summary Judgment   §4.41

F.   Counsel Should Simultaneously File Pleadings, Conduct Discovery, and Negotiate   §4.42

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5

Grounds for Eviction

I.    GROUNDS FOR EVICTION GENERALLY   §5.1

II.    GROUNDS FOR EVICTION BASED ON TENANT’S DEFAULT; 3-DAY NOTICE REQUIRED   §5.2

III.    REASONS FOR TERMINATION NOT BASED ON TENANT’S DEFAULT; NOTICE REQUIRED   §5.3

IV.    REASONS FOR TERMINATION NOT BASED ON TENANT’S DEFAULT; NOTICE NOT REQUIRED   §5.4

V.    TERMINATING MOBILEHOME PARK TENANCIES   §5.5

VI.    EVICTION BROUGHT BY CITY PROSECUTOR OR CITY ATTORNEY   §5.6

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6

Three-Day Notice

I.    PURPOSE AND EFFECT OF 3-DAY NOTICE   §6.1

A.   Purpose of 3-Day Notice   §6.2

B.   If 3-Day Notice Is Defective   §6.3

II.    IMMEDIATE TENANT RESPONSE TO SERVICE OF 3-DAY NOTICE (BEFORE COMPLAINT HAS BEEN FILED)   §6.4

III.    STRICT COMPLIANCE WITH STATUTE IS REQUIRED   §6.5

IV.    NOTICE REQUIRED EVEN IF LEASE PROVIDES THAT IT IS NOT NECESSARY   §6.6

V.    COMPUTATION OF NOTICE PERIOD   §6.7

VI.    NOTICE IS VALID EVEN THOUGH IT CONTAINS MORE THAN ONE REASON FOR EVICTION   §6.8

VII.    NOTICE MAY BE WITHDRAWN   §6.9

VIII.    FORM OF NOTICE   §6.10

A.   Notice Must Be in Writing   §6.11

B.   Description of Premises in Notice   §6.12

C.   Signature on Notice   §6.13

D.   Demand for Possession Must Be Unequivocal   §6.14

E.   Statement of Three Days in Notice Itself May Not Be Required   §6.15

F.   Notice May Declare Election of Forfeiture   §6.16

G.   Demand for Rent and Charges

1.   Notice to Quit Must Include Demand for Rent as Alternative   §6.17

2.   Notice Must Specify No More Than Rent Actually Due   §6.18

a.   Precise Amount of Rent Need Not Be Specified if Calculation of Rent Depends on Tenant’s Accounting   §6.19

b.   Statement of Rent Due, and Additional Claims in Notice   §6.20

                           c.   Effect of Federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act   §6.20A

3.   Notice Seeks Less Than Actual Amount Owed   §6.21

4.   One-Year Limitation on Amount of Rent That Can Be Demanded   §6.22

5.   Inclusion of Late Charges in Notice   §6.23

6.   Validity of Late Charges Landlord Claims Are Due

a.   As Liquidated Damages   §6.24

b.   As Violation of Usury Law   §6.24A

IX.    SERVICE OF NOTICE

A.   When Notice May Be Served   §6.25

1.   “Holidays” Defined   §6.26

2.   When Tenant May Perform Under Notice   §6.27

B.   Method of Service   §6.28

C.   Statutory Requirements for Service of 3-Day Notice   §6.29

X.    WHEN 3-DAY NOTICE IS BASED ON FAILURE TO PAY RENT   §6.30

XI.    TENDER OF RENT

A.   Method of Tender of Rent   §6.31

B.   Proof That Tender Was Made   §6.32

C.   Depositing Money in Landlord’s Bank Account   §6.33

D.   Effect of Tender of Rent on Obligation to Pay Rent   §6.34

E.   Time of Tender of Rent

1.   Tender of Rent Before Service of Notice   §6.35

2.   Tender of Rent After Notice Is Served and Before Notice Period Expires   §6.36

3.   Tender of Rent After Notice Period Has Expired   §6.37

XII.    WHEN 3-DAY NOTICE IS BASED ON DEFAULT UNDER LEASE OTHER THAN FAILURE TO PAY RENT

A.   Violation of Covenant in Lease Generally; Statutory Basis for 3-Day Notice   §6.38

1.   Express and Implied Covenants   §6.39

2.   Trivial or Technical Breach Not Sufficient   §6.40

3.   Waiver and Estoppel   §6.41

4.   Repeated Acceptance of Late Rent   §6.42

5.   Effect of Tenant’s Performance   §6.43

6.   Whether Notice Must Be Given in Alternative   §6.44

7.   Stating the Breach   §6.45

B.   Violation of Covenant Against Subletting, Assignment, or Waste; Maintaining Nuisance; or Using Premises for Unlawful Purpose   §6.46

1.   Subletting, Assignment, and Waste   §6.47

2.   Nuisance   §6.48

3.   Unlawful Purpose   §6.49

XIII.    SALE UNDER EXECUTION, MORTGAGE, OR TRUST DEED   §6.50

XIV.    COMMON FLAWS IN 3-DAY NOTICE OR ITS SERVICE THAT RENDER NOTICE INEFFECTIVE   §6.51

XV.    EFFECT OF SERVICE OF MORE THAN ONE NOTICE   §6.52

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7

Thirty-Day/Sixty-Day Notices and Termination Without Notice

I.    TERMINATING PERIODIC TENANCIES

A.   Using 30-Day Notice   §7.1

B.   Using 60-Day Notice   §7.1A

II.    IMMEDIATE TENANT RESPONSE TO SERVICE OF NOTICE   §7.2

III.    TENANT REMAINS IN POSSESSION AFTER TERMINATION

A.   “Holdover” Tenant Defined   §7.3

B.   Tenant Serves Landlord With Notice of Termination and Remains in Possession After Termination Period   §7.4

C.   Term Has Expired but Tenant Holds Over   §7.5

D.   Termination of Employment of Resident Employee   §7.6

E.   Death of Tenant   §7.7

F.   Expiration of Fixed-Term Lease   §7.8

G.   Effect of Landlord’s Acceptance of Rent After Expiration of Fixed Term   §7.9

H.   Effect of Clause Providing for Automatic Extension or Renewal   §7.9A

I.   Lodger Who Holds Over in Owner-Occupied Dwelling   §7.10

J.   Expiration of Periodic (Generally Month-to-Month) Lease   §7.11

IV.    LENGTH OF PERIOD OF NOTICE

A.   Shortened Notice Periods by Agreement   §7.12

B.   Date on Which Mailed Notice Is Effective   §7.13

C.   Notice Period Must Expire Before Complaint Can Be Filed   §7.14

V.    WITHDRAWAL OF NOTICE; ACCEPTANCE OF RENT PAYMENTS   §7.15

VI.    FORM OF NOTICE

A.   Notice Must Be in Writing   §7.16

B.   Description of Premises and Signature   §7.17

C.   Notice Cannot Be in the Alternative   §7.18

D.   Statement of 30 or 60 Days   §7.19

E.   Cover Sheet; Evictions After Foreclosure   §7.19A

VII.    APPORTIONMENT OF RENT   §7.20

VIII.    METHOD OF SERVICE   §7.21

IX.    TENANCY AT WILL   §7.22

X.    EFFECT OF SERVICE OF 30-DAY OR 60-DAY NOTICE IN CONJUNCTION WITH SERVICE OF 3-DAY NOTICE   §7.23

XI.    COMMON FLAWS IN NOTICE OR ITS SERVICE, RENDERING NOTICE INEFFECTIVE   §7.24

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8

Service of Notices on Tenant

I.    EVALUATING SERVICE OF NOTICE   §8.1

II.    METHODS OF SERVICE OF NOTICE   §8.2

A.   Personal Service   §8.3

B.   Substituted Service (CCP §1162(a)(2))   §8.4

C.   Service by Posting, Delivery, and Mail (CCP §1162(a)(3))   §8.5

1.   Service by Posting Alone Is Insufficient   §8.6

2.   Service by Mail Alone Is Insufficient   §8.7

D.   Extension of Tenant’s Time to Act When Notice Is Mailed   §8.8

1.   Notice Effective on Receipt   §8.8A

2.   Notice Effective on Mailing   §8.8B

3.   Effective Date of Notice Extended by CCP §1013   §8.8C

4.   Rationale Favoring Extension of Response Period Under CCP §1013 When Notice Is Mailed   §8.9

III.    IMPROPER SERVICE

A.   Effect of Defective Service of Notice   §8.10

B.   Actual Receipt of Improperly Served Notice   §8.11

IV.    EFFECT OF SERVICE ON PERSONS OTHER THAN TENANT   §8.12

A.   Occupants Who Are Neither Tenants nor Subtenants   §8.13

B.   Cotenants   §8.14

C.   Subtenants   §8.15

V.    EXAMPLES OF COMMON MISTAKES IN SERVICE   §8.16

VI.    PROOF OF SERVICE OF NOTICE   §8.17

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9

Negotiating Strategies

I.    IMPORTANCE OF NEGOTIATION AND EARLY SETTLEMENT   §9.1

A.   Definitions of Terms: “Negotiation,” “Target Point,” “Resistance Level,” and “Bottom Line”   §9.2

B.   Determining Tenant’s Goals and Expectations   §9.3

C.   Determining the Bargaining Range   §9.4

D.   Possible Bargaining Outcomes   §9.5

E.   Evaluating Case   §9.6

II.    KEY FACTORS TOWARD SETTLEMENT IN TENANT’S FAVOR

A.   Merits of Tenant’s Case   §9.7

B.   Whether Tenant Is Willing to Relinquish Possession   §9.8

C.   Whether Tenant Is Impervious to Judgment for Damages   §9.9

D.   Whether Rental Agreement Contains Attorney Fee Clause   §9.10

III.    DEVELOPING A BARGAINING STRATEGY   §9.11

A.   Look for Means to Strengthen Tenant’s Case and Weaken Landlord’s   §9.12

B.   Tenant’s Attorney Must Be Ready to Move Quickly to Take Advantage of Settlement Opportunities   §9.13

C.   Tenant’s Attorney Should Be Aware of Landlord’s Goals and Fears   §9.14

D.   Determining How Much to Demand in Initial Settlement Offer   §9.15

IV.    ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FACING OPPOSING COUNSEL KNOWN TO TENANT’S COUNSEL   §9.16

V.    USING BARGAINING TACTICS   §9.17

VI.    COMMUNICATING WARNINGS TO OPPOSING PARTY   §9.18

VII.    WHEN LANDLORD’S COUNSEL APPEARS TO BE DRAWING OUT ACTION TO GENERATE FEES   §9.19

VIII.    DRAFTING SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT   §9.20

IX.    EVALUATING SUCCESS OF SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT   §9.21

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10

Proceeding in Forma Pauperis

I.    AUTHORITY FOR OBTAINING WAIVER OF COURT FEES AND COSTS   §10.1

II.    RIGHT TO PROCEED IN FORMA PAUPERIS   §10.2

III.    SUBSTANTIVE SHOWING OF INDIGENCE   §10.3

IV.    CLASSES OF CLAIMANTS AND CATEGORIES FOR WHICH FEES AND COSTS MAY BE WAIVED   §10.4

V.    FEES AND COSTS IN TRIAL COURT

A.   Types of Fees and Costs Waived by Initial Application   §10.5

B.   Waiver of Other Fees and Costs   §10.6

C.   Applying to Proceed in Forma Pauperis

1.   Procedure for Request for Waiver of Court Fees and Costs   §10.7

2.   Grant of Waiver of Court Fees and Costs Without Hearing   §10.7A

3.   Hearing on Applicant’s Entitlement to Waiver of Court Fees and Costs   §10.7B

4.   Court Issues and Serves Order on Request to Waive Court Fees   §10.7C

5.   Effect of Denial of Waiver on Pleadings Already Filed by Applicant   §10.7D

6.   Procedure for Subsequent Determinations of Fee Waiver Eligibility   §10.8

D.   Right to Waiver or Reimbursement of Discovery Costs   §10.9

E.   Right to Appointment of Attorney   §10.10

VI.    FEES AND COSTS ON APPEAL

A.   Proceeding in Forma Pauperis   §10.11

1.   Filing Fees   §10.11A

2.   Fees for Transcript   §10.11B

3.   Fees for Interpreter   §10.11C

4.   Appeal Bond Fees   §10.11D

B.   Review of Denial of Request   §10.12

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11

Service of Summons and Complaint; Motion to Quash Service of Summons

I.    SERVICE OF SUMMONS AND COMPLAINT   §11.1

II.    IMMEDIATE ACTIONS THAT CAN BE TAKEN ON TENANT’S BEHALF AFTER SERVICE OF SUMMONS   §11.2

III.    ATTEMPTS TO AVOID SERVICE OF SUMMONS   §11.3

IV.    FORM OF SUMMONS   §11.4

V.    FORM: SUMMONS—UNLAWFUL DETAINER—EVICTION (JUDICIAL COUNCIL FORM SUM-130)   §11.5

VI.    SERVICE OF PROCESS   §11.6

A.   Methods of Service   §11.7

B.   Strict Construction of Service Statutes   §11.8

C.   Effect of Defective Service   §11.9

D.   New Summons Need Not Be Served With Service of Amended Complaint   §11.10

E.   Return of Service   §11.11

F.   Personal Service   §11.12

G.   Substituted Service   §11.13

1.   Substituted Service on Individual Defendant   §11.14

2.   Substituted Service on Business Entity   §11.15

3.   Showing Reasonable Diligence   §11.16

4.   Recital on Return of Service   §11.17

H.   Service by Mail With Acknowledgment of Receipt   §11.18

I.   Service by Posting and Mailing   §11.19

J.   Order Allowing Service by Posting   §11.20

K.   Completion Date of Service by Posting   §11.21

L.   Service by Publication   §11.22

VII.    SPECIAL APPEARANCE REQUIRED ON MOTION TO QUASH

A.   What Constitutes a General Appearance   §11.23

B.   Making a Special Appearance   §11.24

VIII.    GROUNDS FOR MOTION TO QUASH   §11.25

A.   Error in Filled-Out Summons   §11.26

B.   Failure to Properly Serve All Required Papers   §11.27

C.   Motion to Quash When Cause of Action Is Not Properly Unlawful Detainer   §11.28

D.   Complaint Contains Another Cause of Action in Addition to Unlawful Detainer   §11.29

E.   Complaint Prays for Damages Not Allowed in Unlawful Detainer   §11.30

F.   Defendant Erroneously Designated

1.   Pleading Requirements; “Doe” Defendants   §11.31

2.   Entering Judgment Against “Doe” Defendant   §11.32

IX.    CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGE TO FIVE-DAYS-TO-ANSWER REQUIREMENT   §11.33

X.    MOTION TO QUASH—PROCEDURE

A.   Time to File Motion; Effect of Motion on Time to File Answer   §11.34

B.   Form of Notice   §11.35

C.   Hearing on Motion to Quash; Burden of Proof   §11.36

D.   Filing Fees   §11.37

XI.    FORM: MOTION TO QUASH SERVICE OF SUMMONS; POINTS AND AUTHORITIES; DECLARATION OF TENANT   §11.38

XII.    FORM: ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO QUASH SERVICE OF SUMMONS   §11.39

XIII.    EFFECT OF GRANTING MOTION TO QUASH   §11.40

XIV.    EFFECT OF DENIAL OF MOTION TO QUASH   §11.41

XV.    APPLICATION FOR WRIT OF MANDATE IF MOTION DENIED   §11.42

XVI.    POSSIBLE EFFECT OF CCP §1167.4 ON WHETHER TIME FOR FILING RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS IS TOLLED BY PETITION FOR WRIT   §11.43

XVII.    CHART: TIMELINE FOR TENANT ACTIONS IF SUMMONS OR SERVICE OF SUMMONS WAS DEFECTIVE   §11.44

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12

Default Judgments

I.    PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING JUDGMENT BY DEFAULT   §12.1

II.    CHECKLIST: OBTAINING RELIEF FROM ENTRY OF DEFAULT   §12.2

III.    SERVICE OF APPLICATION FOR ENTRY OF DEFAULT; LANDLORD’S OBLIGATION TO INFORM TENANT   §12.3

IV.    EFFECT OF ENTRY OF DEFAULT; LATE FILING OF RESPONSE   §12.4

V.    ENTRY OF DEFAULT; WRIT OF IMMEDIATE POSSESSION   §12.5

VI.    PROVE-UP HEARING FOR RELIEF OTHER THAN RESTITUTION   §12.6

VII.    PROCEDURE FOR ENTERING DEFAULT IF SERVICE WAS BY PUBLICATION   §12.7

VIII.    SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT   §12.8

A.   Stipulation to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment   §12.9

B.   Form: Stipulation to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment; Order   §12.10

C.   Procedures for Applying to Set Aside Default   §12.11

D.   Grounds for Setting Aside Default and Default Judgment   §12.12

1.   Mistake, Inadvertence, Surprise, or Excusable Neglect (CCP §473)

a.   Relief May Be Granted for Client or Attorney Error   §12.13

b.   Relief Must Be Granted for Attorney Error   §12.14

c.   Time Limitations on Bringing Motion Under CCP §473   §12.15

d.   Showing in Support of Motion; Declaration   §12.16

e.   Excuses for Default; Examples   §12.17

(1)  Mistake of Fact   §12.18

(2)  Attorney’s Mistake of Law   §12.19

(3)  Excusable Neglect   §12.20

(4)  Fraud   §12.21

2.   Clerical Mistakes; Vacating Void Judgments (CCP §473, ¶4)   §12.22

a.   Judgment Void on Its Face   §12.23

b.   Judgment Void in Fact, But Not Void on Its Face   §12.24

3.   When Service of Summons Does Not Result in Actual Notice to Party (CCP §473.5)   §12.25

4.   Motion or Separate Action in Equity Available to Vacate Judgment on Ground of Fraud or Mistake   §12.26

5.   Erroneously Entered Default or Default Judgment   §12.27

6.   Examples of Erroneously Entered Defaults and Default Judgments   §12.28

IX.    WHEN WRIT OF EXECUTION HAS BEEN ISSUED   §12.29

X.    FORMS: MOTION TO SET ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT

A.   Form: Notice of Motion to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment; Supporting Memorandum   §12.30

B.   Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment   §12.30A

XI.    ORDER SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT   §12.31

XII.    FORM: ORDER SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT   §12.32

XIII.    EFFECT OF ORDER SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT   §12.33

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13

Demurring and Moving to Strike

I.    ATTACKING LEGAL SUFFICIENCY OF COMPLAINT   §13.1

II.    THE DEMURRER   §13.2

A.   Grounds for General Demurrer   §13.3

B.   Grounds for Special Demurrer   §13.4

C.   Sustaining Demurrer With or Without Leave to Amend   §13.5

D.   Demurrer Permitted on Grounds of No Jurisdiction Over Subject Matter   §13.6

E.   Effect of Another Pending Unlawful Detainer Action   §13.7

F.   Parties

1.   Improper Defendant   §13.8

2.   Improper Plaintiff   §13.9

G.   Venue and Trial Court Location   §13.10

H.   Description of Premises With Reasonable Certainty   §13.11

I.   Existence of Landlord-Tenant Relationship   §13.12

J.   Notice of Termination

1.   Alleging Service of Notice   §13.13

2.   Alleging Proper Notice   §13.13A

3.   Alleging Contents of Notice   §13.14

a.   Default in Rent   §13.15

b.   Breach of Covenant Other Than Nonpayment of Rent   §13.16

c.   Subletting, Waste, Nuisance, or Use for Unlawful Purpose   §13.17

d.   Expiration of Term

(1)  Fixed Term   §13.18

(2)  Periodic Tenancy   §13.19

K.   Tenant Continues in Possession   §13.20

L.   Fraud, Force, or Violence   §13.21

M.   Compliance With Implied Warranty of Habitability   §13.22

N.   Statute of Limitations   §13.23

O.   Checklist: Demurrable Defects in Complaint   §13.23A

P.   Form: Demurrer to Complaint   §13.24

III.    MOTION TO STRIKE   §13.25

A.   Irrelevant, False, or Improper Allegations   §13.26

B.   Defects Not Subject to Demurrer   §13.27

C.   Improper Request for Damages   §13.28

D.   Necessary Allegations for Finding Statutory Damages   §13.29

E.   Rental Value of Premises After Suit Brought   §13.30

F.   Attorney Fee Provision in Lease   §13.31

G.   Verification   §13.32

H.   Failure to State “§1161a” in Caption   §13.32A

I.   Sample Form: Motion to Strike   §13.33

IV.    PROCEDURE FOR DEMURRER AND MOTION TO STRIKE

A.   Answer May Be Filed With Demurrer   §13.34

B.   Timing of Hearing on Demurrer and Motion to Strike   §13.35

C.   Supporting Memorandum   §13.36

D.   Effect of Overruling of Demurrer   §13.37

E.   Frivolous Demurrers   §13.38

F.   Motion to Strike   §13.39

V.    FILING FEES   §13.40

VI.    EXTENSION OF TIME TO PLEAD   §13.41

VII.    MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON PLEADINGS   §13.42

VIII.    SPECIAL (ANTI-SLAPP) MOTION TO STRIKE   §13.43

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14

Answering and Alleging Affirmative Defenses

I.    RIGHT TO ANSWER   §14.1

II.    USE OF JUDICIAL COUNCIL FORMS   §14.2

III.    TIME TO ANSWER   §14.3

IV.    GOOD CAUSE TO EXTEND TIME TO ANSWER

A.   Length of Extension   §14.4

B.   Steps Tenant Should Take to Get Extension of Time to File Answer   §14.5

V.    DENIALS   §14.6

VI.    BASES FOR DENIALS   §14.7

VII.    AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES   §14.8

A.   Priority of Title After Foreclosure Sale   §14.9

B.   Implied Warranty of Habitability and Retaliatory Eviction   §14.10

C.   “Equitable” Defenses   §14.11

D.   Laches   §14.12

E.   Other Affirmative Defenses   §14.13

F.   Illegal Discrimination   §14.13A

1.   Violation of Unruh Civil Rights Act as Defense   §14.14

a.   Application of Unruh Act to Landlords   §14.15

b.   Prohibition of Arbitrary Discrimination Under Unruh Act   §14.16

c.   Minimum Income Policy   §14.17

d.   Examples of Reach of Unruh Act   §14.18

2.   Discrimination Based on Age

a.   Discrimination Against Families With Children   §14.19

b.   Senior Citizen Housing   §14.20

3.   Discrimination Under Federal Fair Housing Acts   §14.21

4.   Discrimination Under California Fair Employment and Housing Act   §14.22

5.   Family Day Care Home   §14.22A

6.   Immigration Status   §14.22B

7.   Domestic Violence   §14.22C

G.   Other Violations of Housing Statutes and Ordinances

1.   Certificate of Occupancy Violations   §14.23

2.   Landlord’s Duty to Repair; “Repair and Deduct” Statutes (CC §§1941–1942.5)   §14.24

3.   Violation of Tenantability Statutes (CC §1942.4)   §14.24A

a.   Indications That Premises Are Untenantable   §14.25

b.   Conditions Rebuttably Presumed to Breach Habitability Requirements   §14.26

c.   If Tenant Causes Condition of Premises   §14.27

d.   Tenant’s Remedies   §14.28

e.   Waiver of Tenant’s Rights   §14.29

4.   Statutory Violations Under Rent Control   §14.30

H.   Fraud   §14.31

I.   Adhesion Contract   §14.32

J.   Waiver and Estoppel   §14.33

K.   Express Promise to Repair   §14.34

1.   Dependent or Independent Covenants   §14.35

2.   Oral Promise Made Before Written Lease   §14.36

a.   Consideration   §14.37

b.   Statute of Frauds   §14.38

c.   Parol Evidence Rule as Applied to Leases   §14.39

                           d.   Dependency of Covenants   §14.40

3.   Tenant’s Arguments for Admission of Oral Promise Made Before or at Time of Execution of Written Agreement   §14.41

4.   Oral Promise Made Before Entry Into Oral Lease   §14.42

5.   Promise Made Subsequent to Lease   §14.43

6.   When Tenant Makes Promise to Repair   §14.43A

L.   Implied Covenant of Good Faith   §14.44

M.   Actual Partial Eviction   §14.45

N.   Notice Served More Than One Year After Rent Due   §14.46

O.   Breach of Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment   §14.47

P.   Offsets   §14.48

Q.   When Tenant Has Vacated Premises   §14.49

VII.    VERIFICATION   §14.50

VIII.    FILING ANSWER AFTER RULING ON DEMURRER   §14.51

IX.    EXTENSION OF TIME TO PLEAD   §14.52

X.    AMENDING ANSWER   §14.53

XI.    CROSS-COMPLAINTS   §14.54

A.   When Tenant Has Vacated Premises   §14.55

B.   When Landlord Fails to Challenge Cross-Complaint   §14.56

C.   Procedure   §14.57

D.   Form: Answer—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-105) [Deleted]   §14.58

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15

Affirmative Defenses—Implied Warranty of Habitability

I.    INTRODUCTION

A.   Adoption of Implied Warranty of Habitability: Hinson v Delis; Green v Superior Court   §15.1

B.   Definition of Implied Warranty of Habitability   §15.2

C.   Supreme Court Rationale in Adopting Implied Warranty Doctrine   §15.3

D.   Landlord May Be Held in Breach Even if Another Is Responsible for Defect   §15.4

E.   Time Within Which Landlord Must Correct Defects   §15.5

II.    USES OF IMPLIED WARRANTY OF HABITABILITY DOCTRINE   §15.6

A.   When Warranty Used in Suit for Affirmative Damages and Other Relief   §15.7

B.   Procedure When Using Warranty as Defense in Unlawful Detainer Action   §15.8

C.   Effect of Tenant Prevailing at Trial on Warranty Defense   §15.9

III.    ESTABLISHING BREACH OF WARRANTY

A.   Facilities Covered   §15.10

1.   Government-Owned Housing   §15.11

2.   Portions of Premises Covered by Warranty of Habitability   §15.12

B.   Housing and Building Code Violations

1.   Sources of Housing and Building Code Standards   §15.13

2.   Examples of Housing and Building Code Violations   §15.13A

3.   Jury Instructions Relating to Code Violations   §15.14

4.   Defects Actionable Under Implied Warranty or Negligence But Not Covered by Housing and Building Codes   §15.15

C.   Failure to Protect Tenants From Criminal Acts   §15.16

1.   Determining Whether Landlord Has a Duty to Protect Against Criminal Acts   §15.17

2.   Examples of Duty Not Found or Duty Held Not Breached   §15.18

3.   Examples of Duty Found or Landlord Held in Breach   §15.19

4.   Breach of Duty Raised by Allegation of Breach of Implied Warranty   §15.20

5.   Level of Security at Time Tenant Moves Into Premises   §15.21

6.   Proving Causation   §15.21A

D.   Seriousness of Defects

1.   Requirement That Defects Be Serious   §15.22

2.   Examples of Defects Held Serious Enough to Constitute Breach of Implied Warranty   §15.23

3.   Evidence of Breach   §15.24

a.   Proving That Existing Conditions Violate Code   §15.25

b.   Presumption of Breach of Habitability Standards   §15.26

c.   Viewing the Premises   §15.27

E.   Special Problems

1.   Premises Uninhabitable at Inception of Tenancy   §15.28

2.   Premises Become Uninhabitable After Tenant Is Served With Notice of Termination   §15.29

3.   Waiver of Warranty   §15.30

4.   Defect Caused by Tenant’s Wrongful Action   §15.31

5.   Defects Caused by Acts of Nature   §15.32

IV.    NOTICE OF DEFECT   §15.33

V.    REASONABLE TIME TO REPAIR NOT REQUIRED   §15.34

VI.    PROTECTIVE ORDERS   §15.35

A.   When Protective Orders Are Appropriate   §15.36

B.   Advantages to Tenant of Voluntary Deposit Into Attorney’s Trust Account   §15.37

VII.    DAMAGES FOR BREACH OF IMPLIED WARRANTY   §15.38

A.   Relief Based on Affirmative Defense of Breach of Implied Warranty   §15.39

1.   Period During Which Damages Accrue   §15.40

2.   Tenant Must Pay “Reasonable Rent” Even if Warranty Breached   §15.41

3.   Various Approaches to Measuring Damages   §15.42

a.   “Difference-in-Value” Approach   §15.43

b.   “Discomfort-and-Annoyance” Approach   §15.44

c.   “Percentage-Reduction-of-Use” Approach   §15.45

4.   Limits on Amount by Which Rent May Be Reduced   §15.46

5.   Amount of Rent Reduction in Subsidized Housing   §15.46A

6.   Nominal Damage Awards   §15.47

B.   Actions Brought Under CC §1942.4   §15.48

C.   Actions Based on Tort of Breach of Implied Warranty   §15.49

D.   Hybrid View of Warranty of Habitability—Contract and Tort   §15.50

VIII.    EFFECT OF RECENT PURCHASE OF PROPERTY BY LANDLORD   §15.51

        IX.    LACK OF CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY   §15.52

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16

Affirmative Defenses—Retaliatory Evictions

I.    LEGAL FRAMEWORK   §16.1

II.    SEVERAL SOURCES OF LAW MAY APPLY SIMULTANEOUSLY   §16.2

A.   Civil Code §1942.5

1.   Tenants’ Actions on Habitability (CC §1942.5(a))

a.   Protected Parties and Acts   §16.3

b.   Limitations on Protection

(1)  Tenant Cannot Be in Default in Payment of Rent   §16.4

(2)  Tenant May Not Invoke CC §1942.5(a) More Than Once a Year   §16.5

(3)  Protective Period Under CC §1942.5 Limited to 180 Days   §16.6

(4)  Defense Unavailable in Ellis Act Evictions   §16.6A

2.   Tenant Union Activity (CC §1942.5(c))   §16.7

3.   Exercise of “Rights Under Law” (CC §1942.5(c))   §16.8

a.   Additional Examples of Acts Protected by CC §1942.5(c)   §16.9

b.   Examples of Acts Protected Before Enactment of CC §1942.5   §16.10

4.   Tenant Cannot Waive Rights (CC §1942.5(d))   §16.11

5.   Notice and Burden of Proof (CC §1942.5(e))   §16.12

6.   Procedure for Proving Retaliation When Landlord Includes Grounds in Notice (CC §1942.5(e))   §16.13

7.   Remedies (CC §1942.5(f)–(g)); Punitive Damages and Attorney Fees   §16.14

8.   Remedies Not Exclusive (CC §1942.5(h))   §16.15

B.   Public Policy; Retaliation for Refusal to Commit Crime Improper   §16.16

C.   Victims of Domestic Violence   §16.16A

D.   Other Statutory Rights

1.   Retaliation Based on Tenant’s Assertion of Statutory Rights; Implied Protection   §16.17

2.   Retaliation Based on Tenant’s Assertion of Statutory Rights; Express Statutory Protection   §16.18

3.   Common Law   §16.19

4.   Local Rent Control Ordinances   §16.20

5.   Constitution   §16.21

III.    LIMITATIONS ON RETALIATORY EVICTION DEFENSE   §16.21A

IV.    PROOF OF RETALIATORY MOTIVE

A.   Sole or Dominant Motive   §16.22

B.   Treatment of Mixed Motives in Labor Law   §16.23

C.   Presumptions and Burden of Proof   §16.24

D.   Evidence   §16.25

E.   Analogies Drawn From Labor Law to Prove Retaliatory Motive   §16.26

F.   Form: Affirmative Defense on Ground of Retaliatory Eviction   §16.27

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17

Special Considerations Governing Evictions in Rent-Controlled Cities

Myron Moskovitz
Sonya Bekoff Molho
Steven A. MacDonald
Denise McGranahan
Sallyann Molloy

I.    SCOPE OF LOCAL RENT CONTROL ORDINANCES

A.   Local Control Versus State Preemption   §17.1

B.   Statewide Vacancy Decontrol

1.   Existing Housing   §17.1A

a.   Phase-In Periods   §17.1B

b.   Lease Restrictions on Subletting Allowed   §17.1C

c.   Exceptions to Preemptive Effect   §17.1D

2.   New Construction and Single-Unit Exclusions   §17.1E

a.   Phase-In Periods for Condominiums and Single-Family Homes   §17.1F

b.   Exceptions to Preemptive Effect   §17.1G

II.    PRACTICE CONSIDERATIONS IN RENT CONTROL JURISDICTIONS   §17.2

III.    CITIES SUBJECT TO RENT CONTROL   §17.3

IV.    EVICTIONS AND RENT CONTROL

A.   Overview   §17.4

B.   Just Cause for Eviction   §17.5

1.   Failure to Pay Rent   §17.6

2.   Failure to Cure Violation of Rental Agreement   §17.7

3.   Conduct Constituting a Nuisance   §17.8

4.   Use of Premises for Illegal Purpose   §17.9

5.   Refusal to Permit Landlord Access to Premises   §17.10

6.   Refusal to Execute New Lease   §17.11

7.   Subletting   §17.12

8.   Violation of Lease Restricting Occupancy   §17.12A

a.   Exception: Relative or Domestic Partner of Tenant   §17.12B

b.   Exception: Surviving Relative of Deceased Tenant   §17.12C

                           c.   Exception: Landlord Knowingly Accepts Rent From Occupant   §17.12D

9.   Rehabilitation of Unit   §17.13

10.   Demolition or Conversion of Units—Ellis Act Evictions   §17.14

a.   Constitutional Challenges; Preemption   §17.14A

b.   Effect of Other State Laws   §17.14B

11.   Occupancy by Owner or Owner’s Relative   §17.15

a.   Representing Tenants in Evictions for Owner Occupancy   §17.16

b.   Good Faith in Owner-Occupancy Evictions   §17.17

12.   Grounds Not Stated in Ordinance: Termination of Manager; Foreclosure   §17.18

13.   Failure to Use Premises as Principal Residence   §17.18A

C.   Notice and Pleading Requirements   §17.19

D.   Burdens of Proof and Presumptions   §17.20

E.   Defenses to Evictions   §17.21

F.   Statute of Limitations   §17.22

G.   Damages for Unlawful Evictions   §17.23

H.   Attorney Fees   §17.24

V.    NEGOTIATING AND DEFENDING ELLIS ACT EVICTIONS

A.   Preliminary Considerations

1.   Scope of Ellis Act   §17.25

2.   Representing Organized Tenants   §17.26

3.   Factual Investigation

a.   Review Notices and Status of All Affected Units   §17.27

b.   Explain Ellis Process to Client   §17.28

c.   Ascertain Client’s Age, Health, and Economic Status   §17.29

d.   Investigate Unexpired Leases   §17.30

B.   Relocation Benefits   §17.31

1.   Benefits Available for Displaced Tenants Regardless of Income   §17.32

2.   Landlord’s Misrepresentation of Availability of Benefits   §17.33

3.   Documentation Proving Eligibility   §17.34

4.   Other Issues Affecting Payment of Benefits

a.   Timely Payment   §17.35

b.   Waiver of Relocation Fees   §17.36

c.   One Fee per Unit   §17.37

d.   Services in Lieu of Fees   §17.38

e.   Failure to Pay Fees   §17.39

C.   Technical Defenses Based on Notice and Filing Requirements   §17.40

D.   Unexpired Leases   §17.41

E.   Tenant’s Options Regarding Unlawful Detainer Action Under Ellis Act

1.   Answering the Complaint   §17.42

2.   Retaliatory Eviction Defense Limited   §17.43

3.   Failure to Take All Units Off Market   §17.44

4.   Other Possible Defenses   §17.45

F.   Discovering Violations After Eviction

1.   Use of Ellis Act to Move Out Long-Term Tenants   §17.46

2.   Use of Post-Ellis Property for Home Ownership   §17.47

a.   Effect of State and Local Subdivision Laws   §17.48

b.   Effect of State and Local Laws Regulating Apartment Conversions   §17.49

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18

Special Considerations Governing Evictions From Federally Assisted Housing

Catherine M. Bishop
Nancy Ann Palandati
Deborah A. Collins

I.    “FEDERALLY ASSISTED LOW-INCOME HOUSING” DEFINED   §18.1

II.    ASCERTAINING WHETHER TENANT LIVES IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING AND, IF SO, WHAT KIND   §18.2

III.    TYPES OF FEDERAL HOUSING PROGRAMS   §18.3

A.   Public Housing   §18.3A

B.   Section 8   §18.3B

C.   HUD-Assisted and -Subsidized Housing   §18.3C

D.   HUD-Assisted Units Threatened With Prepayment of Mortgage or Opt-Out of Section 8 Contract   §18.3D

E.   Rural Housing Service (RHS) Subsidized Rental Housing   §18.3E

F.   Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC)   §18.3F

G.   Other State and Local Programs   §18.3G

IV.    SUBSTANTIVE RIGHTS IN EVICTION ACTIONS

A.   Application of State Law   §18.4

B.   Evictions After Foreclosure

1.   Preemptive Measures Governing Evictions   §18.4A

2.   Postponing Sale of Multifamily Residential Buildings   §18.4B

C.   Good Cause Requirement   §18.5

1.   Public Housing   §18.6

2.   Project-Based Section 8 and HUD-Assisted and -Subsidized Housing   §18.7

3.   Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program   §18.8

4.   Rural Housing Service (RHS) Rental Housing   §18.9

5.   State and Local Housing Programs for Low-Income Families   §18.10

6.   Other Housing Programs for Low-Income Families   §18.11

D.   Facts Constituting Good Cause   §18.12

1.   Failure to Pay Rent   §18.13

2.   Serious Tenant Wrongdoing, Including Criminal Activity

a.   Violation of Lease or State or Federal Law   §18.14

                           b.   Drug or Criminal Activity

(1)  Statutory Authorization and Standards for Eviction   §18.15

(2)  Federal Standards Upheld in Rucker   §18.16

(3)  When State Law Standards Apply   §18.16A

(4)  Aftermath of Rucker; Unresolved Issues   §18.17

(5)  Permission to Obtain Criminal Records, Drug Treatment Information   §18.17A

c.   Exception: Victims of Domestic Violence Protected   §18.17B

3.   Violation of Program Regulations   §18.18

4.   Examples of Improper Grounds for Evicting Tenant   §18.19

E.   Defending Evictions

1.   Project Owner’s Abuse of Power   §18.20

2.   Defensive Strategies in PHA Evictions   §18.20A

                     3.   Bankruptcy Discharge of Delinquent Rent in Public or Subsidized Housing   §18.20B

V.    EVICTION PROCEDURES: NOTICE AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING OR MEETING   §18.21

A.   Notice Requirements   §18.22

B.   Pretermination Grievance Hearing or Meeting   §18.23

C.   Notice and Hearing Required Before Forfeiture Under Federal Antidrug Statute   §18.24

               D.   Relief From Forfeiture   §18.25

VI.    DAMAGES MAY BE AWARDED FOR WRONGFUL EVICTION FROM FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING   §18.26

       VII.    ENJOINING EVICTIONS FROM FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING   §18.27

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19

Special Considerations Governing Evictions in Commercial Tenancies

Myron Moskovitz
Clifford R. Horner

I.    OVERVIEW OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER IN COMMERCIAL TENANCIES   §19.1

II.    THREE-DAY NOTICE TO PAY RENT OR QUIT

A.   Lease Provisions May Affect Eviction Procedures   §19.2

B.   Statutory Requirements

1.   Estimated Rent (CCP §1161.1)   §19.3

2.   When Rent Is Not Estimated   §19.4

3.   Service Requirements   §19.5

4.   Landlord’s Acceptance of Partial Tender of Rent   §19.6

III.    THREE-DAY NOTICE FOR VIOLATION OF COVENANT OTHER THAN PAYMENT OF RENT   §19.7

A.   Covenants Restricting Assignments

1.   Common Law Rules   §19.8

2.   Statutory Law   §19.9

B.   Covenants Regarding Tenant Improvements   §19.9A

C.   Covenants Restricting Change in Use   §19.10

IV.    TERMINATION NOTICES FOLLOWING FORECLOSURE   §19.10A

V.    TERMINATION UNDER EXPRESS LEASE PROVISIONS   §19.10B

VI.    DEFENDING EVICTION BY ASSERTING BREACH OF LEASE BY LANDLORD

A.   Covenant to Repair; Implied Warranty of Habitability

1.   Dependent Versus Independent Covenants   §19.11

2.   Argument Favoring Adoption of Dependent Covenant Doctrine in Commercial Leases   §19.12

a.   Minimize Litigation   §19.13

b.   Eliminate Unfair Burdens on Tenant   §19.14

c.   Protect Tenant’s Right to Pursue Livelihood   §19.15

d.   No Impact on Summary Nature of Unlawful Detainer   §19.16

e.   Out-of-State Decisions Favor Interdependent Covenants   §19.17

3.   Effect of Toxic Mold Legislation   §19.17A

B.   Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment   §19.18

C.   Other Contractual Defenses   §19.18A

D.   Implied Warranty of Fitness   §19.19

E.   Implied Covenant of Good Faith   §19.20

1.   Duty to Maintain Third Party Leases   §19.21

2.   Sublessor Required to Exercise Option to Extend Master Lease   §19.22

3.   “No Compete” Covenant Applied to Expansion of Shopping Center   §19.23

4.   Good Faith Covenant Applied in Favor of Landlord   §19.24

VII.    NONCONTRACTUAL DEFENSES TO COMMERCIAL EVICTION ACTIONS

A.   Retaliatory Eviction   §19.25

B.   Good Cause to Terminate Petroleum Distributorship   §19.26

C.   Equitable Defenses   §19.27

VIII.    LANDLORD’S RIGHT OF ENTRY PENDING EVICTION   §19.28

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20

Effect of Sale of Property on Unlawful Detainer Proceedings

I.    EFFECT OF SALE OF PROPERTY ON UNLAWFUL DETAINER   §20.1

A.   Sale Before Eviction Action Is Begun   §20.2

B.   Sale After Eviction Action Has Begun   §20.3

II.    EVICTING AFTER SALE UNDER CCP §1161a   §20.4

A.   Use of 30-Day Notice on Residential Owner’s Tenant or 60-Day or 90-Day Notice After Foreclosure   §20.5

1.   When 60-Day Notice Applies   §20.6

2.   Additional Preforeclosure Notice of Sale   §20.7

3.   Postponing Sale of Multifamily Residential Buildings   §20.7A

4.   When 90-Day Notice Applies   §20.8

B.   Litigating Title in Unlawful Detainer Action   §20.9

C.   Effect of Local Eviction Control Ordinances   §20.10

D.   Effect of Section 8 Eviction Controls   §20.11

E.   Postforeclosure Bank Eviction Policies   §20.12

F.   Defending Postforeclosure Evictions: Priority of Title, Title Dispute, Improper Foreclosure, or Improper Notice Following Foreclosure   §20.13

III.    UTILITY CUTOFFS   §20.14

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21

Effect of Filing Bankruptcy on Proceedings in Unlawful Detainer

I.    EFFECT OF TENANT FILING BANKRUPTCY

A.   Automatic Stay on Evictions   §21.1

B.   Exceptions to Stay for Residential Tenancies

1.   After Entry of Judgment for Eviction   §21.1A

2.   When Eviction Based on Endangerment of Property or Illegal Use of Controlled Substance   §21.1B

C.   Significant Changes Under 2005 Act   §21.1C

II.    LANDLORD MAY SEEK RELIEF FROM AUTOMATIC STAY   §21.2

III.    PENALTY FOR IMPROPER FILING OF BANKRUPTCY   §21.3

IV.    LEASE CLAUSES PURPORTING TO TERMINATE LEASE ON FILING OF BANKRUPTCY   §21.4

V.    TERMINATION OF UTILITIES AND OTHER SERVICES   §21.5

VI.    ASSUMPTION OF LEASE BY TRUSTEE   §21.6

VII.    SECURITY DEPOSITS   §21.7

VIII.    DISADVANTAGES TO TENANT OF FILING FOR BANKRUPTCY   §21.8

IX.    FILING PETITION IN BANKRUPTCY AS TACTIC IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION   §21.9

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22

Summary Judgment

I.    PURPOSE OF MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT   §22.1

II.    TIMING OF MOTION   §22.2

III.    BURDEN OF PROOF   §22.2A

IV.    FACTUAL BASES FOR TENANT’S MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT   §22.3

V.    MOVING PARTY’S SUPPORTING PAPERS   §22.4

VI.    OPPOSING PARTY’S COUNTERDECLARATIONS; ORDERS   §22.5

VII.    SUMMARY ADJUDICATION OF ISSUES   §22.6

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23

Discovery

I.    PURPOSES OF DISCOVERY   §23.1

II.    STATUTORY METHODS OF DISCOVERY   §23.2

III.    AVAILABILITY OF DISCOVERY IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER   §23.3

IV.    DEFENSE STRATEGY SHOULD INCLUDE PLAN FOR DISCOVERY   §23.4

V.    FORMAL AND INFORMAL DISCOVERY METHODS   §23.5

VI.    FORMULATING A DISCOVERY PLAN

A.   When to Make and Implement Plan   §23.6

B.   Coordinating Various Discovery Techniques   §23.7

C.   Timeline for Initiating Tenant Discovery Directed to Landlord   §23.8

D.   Actions to Take if Discovery Cannot Be Completed Before Trial Date   §23.9

VII.    PURSUING DISCOVERY BEFORE ACTION FILED   §23.10

A.   Methods of Discovery Available Before Action Is Filed   §23.11

B.   Procedure for Pursuing Discovery Before Action Is Filed   §23.12

C.   Usefulness of Pursuing Discovery Before Action Is Filed   §23.13

VIII.    DISCOVERY AFTER SUMMONS AND COMPLAINT ARE SERVED   §23.14

A.   Time Limits on Responding to Discovery Requests   §23.15

B.   Preventing Setting of Trial Date Before Discovery Is Complete   §23.16

C.   Petitioning for Writ of Mandate if Court Refuses to Extend Trial Date   §23.17

IX.    METHODS OF DISCOVERY   §23.18

A.   Oral Depositions   §23.19

1.   Usefulness of Depositions   §23.20

2.   Expense of Depositions   §23.21

3.   Procedure for Oral Depositions

a.   When Deposition May Be Taken   §23.22

b.   Setting Depositions of Parties   §23.23

c.   Setting Depositions of Nonparties   §23.24

d.   Witness and Mileage Fees   §23.25

e.   Procedures at Deposition   §23.26

f.   Inspection of Documents at Deposition   §23.27

g.   Reviewing, Correcting, and Approving Deposition   §23.28

B.   Written Interrogatories   §23.29

1.   Usefulness of Written Interrogatories   §23.30

2.   Disadvantages of Written Interrogatories   §23.31

3.   Limit on Number of Interrogatories That May Be Propounded   §23.32

4.   Form: Declaration for Additional Discovery   §23.33

5.   Procedure for Propounding Written Interrogatories   §23.34

C.   Pretrial Demand for Production of Documents or Inspection   §23.35

1.   Usefulness of Demand for Production   §23.36

2.   Introduction Into Evidence of Documents Produced   §23.37

3.   Tactical Considerations in Requesting Production   §23.38

4.   Protective Orders Against Request for Production   §23.39

D.   Requests for Admissions   §23.40

1.   Usefulness of Requests for Admissions   §23.41

2.   Procedure for Requests for Admissions   §23.42

3.   Form: Declaration in Support of Request for Additional Admissions   §23.43

4.   Effect of Failure to Respond to Request for Admissions   §23.44

5.   Effect of Failure to Admit Fact Later Found True   §23.45

6.   Requests for Admissions May Not Be Combined With Other Discovery Requests   §23.46

7.   Effect of Admission Made in Response to Request   §23.47

8.   Admissions and Responses Are Not Filed But Retained by Parties   §23.48

X.    SANCTIONS FOR REFUSAL TO MAKE DISCOVERY   §23.49

A.   Categories of Sanctions That May Be Imposed   §23.50

B.   What Constitutes Misuse of Discovery Process   §23.51

C.   Specific Sanctions That Court May Impose   §23.52

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24

Rights of Occupants Not Named in Lease

I.    OCCUPANTS WHO ARE NOT NAMED IN LEASE   §24.1

II.    PREJUDGMENT CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION   §24.2

A.   Service of Prejudgment Claim to Right to Possession Form

1.   Service by Marshal, Sheriff, or Process Server   §24.3

2.   Time of Service   §24.4

3.   Service on Occupants Other Than Tenant or Subtenant   §24.5

B.   Effect of Proper Service by Landlord of Prejudgment Claim Form   §24.6

C.   Effect of Inadequate Service by Landlord of Prejudgment Claim Form   §24.7

D.   Judicial Council Form CP10.5: Prejudgment Claim of Right to Possession   §24.8

III.    POSTJUDGMENT CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION   §24.9

A.   Removal of Occupant by Sheriff or Marshal   §24.10

B.   Procedure by Occupant in Making Postjudgment Claim of Right to Possession   §24.11

C.   Judicial Council Form CP10: Claim of Right to Possession and Notice of Hearing   §24.12

IV.    HEARING ON CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION   §24.13

V.    PROCEDURE AT HEARING ON CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION   §24.14

VI.    PROCEEDING WITH ENFORCEMENT OF WRIT OF POSSESSION   §24.15

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25

Trial

I.    SETTING CASE FOR TRIAL

A.   Request and Counter-Request to Set Trial   §25.1

B.   Setting Date for Trial   §25.2

C.   Effects of Local Practices   §25.3

1.   Trial by Temporary Judge   §25.4

2.   Procedure After Trial Date Is Set   §25.5

D.   Resetting Trial Date   §25.6

1.   Procedure If Parties Do Not Agree on New Trial Date   §25.7

2.   Determining Whether Moving Party Has Shown Good Cause   §25.8

3.   Determining Whether There Is Reasonable Probability Plaintiff Will Prevail at Trial   §25.9

4.   Determining Damages Landlord Might Suffer   §25.10

5.   Reduction of Damages Based on Diminution of Value or Setoff   §25.11

6.   Order to Deposit Potential Damages   §25.12

7.   Advancing Trial Date on Tenant’s Failure to Make Deposit   §25.13

8.   Costs of Escrow Recoverable by Prevailing Party   §25.14

9.   Distribution of Funds Held in Escrow After Trial   §25.15

II.    IF TENANT VACATES PREMISES BEFORE TRIAL   §25.16

III.    PRETRIAL CONFERENCE   §25.17

IV.    RIGHT TO JURY TRIAL   §25.18

A.   Jury Instructions   §25.19

B.   Waiver of Jury Trial

1.   Bases for Waiver   §25.20

2.   Requesting Jury Trial After Waiver   §25.21

3.   Tenant’s Right to Jury Trial on Equitable Issues   §25.22

a.   Examples of Legal Issues   §25.23

b.   Examples of Equitable Defenses   §25.24

C.   Jury Verdicts

1.   General and Special Verdicts   §25.24A

2.   Judgment Based on Jury Verdict   §25.24B

V.    DISQUALIFYING JUDGE   §25.25

A.   Challenge for Cause (CCP §170.1)   §25.26

1.   Conditions That May Not Be Used as Grounds to Disqualify Judge   §25.27

2.   Bias or Prejudice   §25.28

3.   Procedure for Disqualification   §25.29

B.   Peremptory Challenges (CCP §170.6)

1.   Grounds for Challenge   §25.30

2.   Procedure for Peremptory Challenges   §25.31

3.   Time Limits for Moving to Challenge   §25.32

4.   Effect of Challenge   §25.33

C.   Tactical Considerations   §25.34

VI.    SUBPOENAS

A.   Subpoenas for Witnesses   §25.35

B.   Subpoena Not Necessary to Require Attendance of Party or Agent   §25.36

C.   Service of Subpoena   §25.37

               D.   Fees for Appearing in Court in Response to Subpoena   §25.38

E.   Subpoena Duces Tecum (Books and Papers)   §25.39

1.   Service of Subpoena Duces Tecum; Affidavit of Good Cause Necessary   §25.40

2.   Fees for Appearing in Court in Response to Subpoena Duces Tecum   §25.41

3.   Subpoena Duces Tecum Not Necessary for Party   §25.42

F.   Penalties for Disobeying Subpoena   §25.43

VII.    EVIDENCE PROBLEMS

A.   Prima Facie Case; Nonsuit   §25.44

B.   Proof of Tenant’s Possession   §25.45

C.   Proof of Service of Notice   §25.46

D.   Proof of Rent Due   §25.47

E.   Judicial Notice   §25.48

F.   Use of Books and Records   §25.49

G.   Laying Foundation for Admission of Business Record   §25.50

H.   Proof of Damages   §25.51

I.   Waiver of Rent During Trial   §25.52

J.   Proving Retaliatory Eviction   §25.53

1.   Strength of Retaliatory Motive   §25.54

2.   Evidence of “Just Cause” to Evict   §25.55

3.   Evidence of Retaliatory Motive

a.   Evidence Inferred by Conduct   §25.56

b.   Indirect Evidence   §25.57

K.   Fees for Appointment of Interpreter   §25.58

VIII.    TRIAL BRIEFS   §25.59

IX.    CONTINUANCES   §25.60

A.   Grounds for Continuance   §25.61

1.   Unavailability of Counsel   §25.62

2.   Unavailability of Party   §25.63

3.   Unavailability of Witness   §25.64

4.   Other Statutory Grounds for Granting Continuance   §25.65

5.   Unexpected Testimony   §25.66

B.   Procedure for Obtaining Continuance   §25.67

1.   Good Cause Required   §25.67A

2.   Stipulation for Continuance   §25.67B

3.   Conditions for Obtaining Continuance   §25.67C

4.   Appealability of Order Denying Continuance   §25.67D

X.    DEFAULTS AT TRIAL   §25.67E

XI.    CONFORMING PLEADINGS TO PROOF

A.   General Law for Ordinary Civil Actions   §25.68

B.   Special Law for Unlawful Detainer Complaints

1.   Amendment Based on Trial Evidence   §25.68A

2.   Amendments Before Trial Excluded   §25.68B

3.   Permissible Scope of Amendments   §25.68C

C.   Amended Versus Supplemental Complaint   §25.68D

XII.    STATEMENT OF DECISION   §25.69

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26

Judgment

I.    JUDGMENTS IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS   §26.1

         II.    CONDITIONING JUDGMENT FOR TENANT ON PAYMENT OF RENT   §26.2

        III.    TENANT MUST BE IN POSSESSION   §26.3

        IV.    WHAT COURT CAN AWARD

A.   Judgment Can Grant Possession of Premises   §26.4

               B.   “Rent” and “Damages”   §26.5

                     1.   Determining Whether Amount Due Is Rent or Damages; Period Covered   §26.6

                     2.   Rent   §26.7

                     3.   Apportionment of Rent   §26.8

                     4.   Damages

a.   Damages Occurring Before Holdover   §26.9

                           b.   Reasonable Rental Value During Holdover   §26.10

                           c.   Damages Against Subtenant   §26.11

                           d.   Damages After Judgment   §26.12

                           e.   Statutory Damages for Malicious Holdover   §26.13

               C.   Forfeiture   §26.14

               D.   Notice May Specify Election to Declare Forfeiture   §26.15

               E.   Interest May Be Awarded   §26.16

               F.   Costs May Be Awarded   §26.17

               G.   Attorney Fees Authorized by Lease or Statute   §26.18

                     1.   Reciprocity of Attorney Fee Provision   §26.19

                     2.   Award of Fees Under Invalid Rental Agreement   §26.20

                     3.   Prevailing Party   §26.21

                     4.   Entitlement to Attorney Fees on Tender and Deposit of Amount Owed   §26.22

                     5.   Prevailing Party When Tenant Raises Habitability as Affirmative Defense   §26.23

                     6.   Size of Fee Award; Local Fee Schedules   §26.24

                     7.   Fees Awardable After Settlement Offer Rejected   §26.25

8.   Fees Awardable Beyond Court’s Jurisdictional Limit   §26.26

9.   Fees Awardable to Public Interest Attorneys   §26.27

10.   Fees Awardable for All Issues Argued   §26.28

11.   Attorney Fees Payable to Party—Not to Attorney   §26.29

12.   Attorney Fees Awardable as Sanctions Regardless of Lease Provision   §26.30

13.   Effect of Voluntary Dismissal   §26.31

14.   Fees Awardable for Enforcement of Right Important to Public Interest   §26.32

15.   Procedures for Requesting Fees   §26.33

16.   Related Statutes Providing for Award of Attorney Fees   §26.34

H.   Limitation on Award for Judgments in Municipal Court of Less Than $10,000   §26.35

I.   Witness Fees May Be Awarded   §26.36

J.   Costs of Execution of Judgment May Be Recovered   §26.37

V.    EFFECT OF JUDGMENT ON CONSUMER CREDIT REPORTING   §26.38

VI.    RES JUDICATA AND COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL EFFECT OF JUDGMENT   §26.38A

VII.    UNLAWFUL DETAINER JUDGMENT FORMS

A.   Form: Order for Judgment for Defendant Conditioned on Payment of Rent After Trial (Warranty of Habitability)   §26.39

B.   Form: Judgment—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD‑110)   §26.40

C.   Form: Judgment—Unlawful Detainer Attachment (Judicial Council Form UD‑110S)   §26.41

D.   Form: Stipulation for Entry of Judgment (Unlawful Detainer) (Judicial Council Form UD‑115)   §26.42

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27

Posttrial Motions

I.    POSTTRIAL MOTIONS COVERED   §27.1

II.    FIVE-DAY STATUTORY STAY OF EXECUTION (FOR APPLICATION FOR RESTORATION OF POSSESSION)   §27.2

III.    DISCRETIONARY STAY OF EXECUTION

A.   Pending Hearing on Posttrial Motions   §27.3

B.   Temporary Stay Based on Hardship   §27.4

C.   Form: Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution   §27.5

D.   Form: Memorandum in Support of Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution   §27.6

IV.    MOTION FOR JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING VERDICT   §27.7

A.   Grounds for Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict   §27.8

B.   Procedure for Making Notice of Motion   §27.9

C.   Time of Ruling on Motion   §27.10

D.   Form: Notice of Motion for Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict   §27.11

E.   Form: Order Granting or Denying Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict   §27.12

V.    MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL   §27.13

A.   Grounds for Motion for New Trial   §27.14

B.   Court’s Power to Vacate or Modify Judgment   §27.15

C.   Notice of Motion for New Trial   §27.16

D.   Time for Making Motion for New Trial   §27.17

E.   Form: Notice of Motion for New Trial   §27.18

F.   Form: Declaration in Support of Notice of Motion for New Trial   §27.19

G.   Hearing on Motion   §27.20

H.   Court’s Time to Rule on Motion   §27.21

VI.    MOTION TO SET ASIDE AND VACATE JUDGMENT   §27.22

A.   Notice of Motion   §27.23

B.   Time for Making Motion   §27.24

C.   Form: Notice of Motion to Vacate Judgment and Enter Different Judgment   §27.25

D.   Form: Order Granting Motion to Vacate Judgment and Enter Different Judgment (CCP §663)   §27.26

VI.    APPLICATION FOR RELIEF FROM FORFEITURE   §27.27

A.   Grounds for Relief From Forfeiture   §27.28

B.   Rent Must Be Paid and Other Covenants Performed   §27.29

C.   Procedure for Seeking Relief From Forfeiture   §27.30

D.   Form: Application for Relief From Forfeiture   §27.31

E.   Effect of Grant or Denial of Relief   §27.32

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28

Enforcement of Judgment—Removing Tenant and Tenant’s Belongings

I.    REMOVING TENANT   §28.1

A.   Contents of Writ   §28.2

B.   Sending Scare Notice to Tenant After Judgment Is Entered   §28.3

C.   Procedures for Serving and Enforcing Writ of Possession   §28.4

D.   Sheriff Must Evict if Tenant Does Not Vacate Within 5 Days   §28.5

E.   Effect of Failure by Sheriff to Act by Return Date of Writ   §28.6

F.   Judicial Council Form EJ‑130: Writ of Possession of Real Property   §28.7

II.    SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT PRACTICES AND CHARGES   §28.8

III.    DISPOSITION OF TENANT’S PERSONAL PROPERTY

A.   Personal Property Not Removed by Tenant   §28.9

B.   Recovery of Personal Property After Eviction   §28.10

C.   Treating Tenant’s Personal Property as Lost or Abandoned   §28.11

D.   Claim by Tenant for Personal Property (CC §1965)   §28.12

E.   Advantages and Disadvantages of Requesting Surrender   §28.13

F.   Form: Claim for Return of Personal Property Under CC §1965   §28.14

IV.    DISPOSITION OF LOST PROPERTY   §28.15

V.    DISPOSITION OF PROPERTY ABANDONED BY TENANT   §28.16

A.   Landlord Must Store Abandoned Property in Safe Place   §28.17

B.   Notice Requirements for Disposal of Abandoned Property   §28.18

C.   Release of Property to Owner on Payment of Costs   §28.19

D.   Storage Costs   §28.20

E.   Sale of Unclaimed Property; Liability of Landlord   §28.21

VI.    EXECUTION ON TENANT’S PERSONAL PROPERTY IN LANDLORD’S POSSESSION   §28.22

VII.    SETTING ASIDE IMPROPER EXECUTION SALE   §28.23

VIII.    SUPPLEMENTAL COST BILL   §28.24

IX.    MOTION TO QUASH OR RECALL WRIT OF EXECUTION   §28.25

X.    CLAIM OF EXEMPTION   §28.26

A.   Judicial Council Form EJ‑160: Claim of Exemption   §28.27

B.   Hearing on Objections to Claim of Exemption   §28.28

C.   Judgment on Claim of Exemption   §28.29

XI.    WAGE GARNISHMENTS   §28.30

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29

Appeals

I.    APPEAL PROCEDURES   §29.1

A.   Limited Civil Cases: Timeline for Action After Entry of Judgment   §29.2

B.   Unlimited Civil Cases: Timeline for Action After Entry of Judgment   §29.3

II.    APPEALABLE JUDGMENTS AND ORDERS   §29.4

III.    VACATING PREMISES DOES NOT MOOT TENANT’S APPEAL   §29.5

IV.    FRIVOLOUS APPEALS   §29.6

V.    OBTAINING IMMEDIATE TEMPORARY STAY OF ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENT   §29.7

VI.    STAY PENDING APPEAL   §29.8

A.   Evaluating Need for Stay Pending Appeal   §29.9

B.   Proper Judge   §29.10

C.   Grounds on Which Stay May Be Granted   §29.11

VII.    UNDERTAKING ON APPEAL   §29.12

VIII.    FORM: WAIVER OF SECURITY   §29.13

IX.    FORM: NOTICE OF MOTION FOR STAY   §29.14

X.    REVIEW OF DENIAL OF STAY   §29.15

XI.    CLEAR ABUSE OF DISCRETION MUST BE SHOWN   §29.16

XII.    SCOPE OF TRIAL COURT JURISDICTION PENDING APPEAL   §29.17

XIII.    EVALUATING WHETHER TO APPEAL   §29.18

XIV.    SUMMARY OF APPELLATE PROCEDURE

A.   Applicable Rules   §29.19

B.   Appeals From Limited Civil Cases   §29.20

C.   Appeals From Other Superior Court Actions   §29.21

D.   Standard of Review   §29.22

E.   Initiating Appeal

1.   Notice of Appeal   §29.23

2.   Form: Notice of Appeal   §29.24

3.   Form: Notice of Appeal/Cross-Appeal (Limited Civil Case) (Judicial Council Form APP-102)   §29.25

4.   Form: Notice Designating Record on Appeal (Limited Civil Case) (Judicial Council Form APP-103)   §29.26

5.   Filing Deadlines Applicable to Appeals From Limited Civil Cases   §29.27

6.   Filing Deadlines Applicable to Other Superior Court Judgments   §29.28

7.   Record on Appeal   §29.29

a.   Electronic Recording or Agreed Statement   §29.30

b.   Form: Proposed Statement on Appeal (Limited Civil Case) (Judicial Council Form APP-104)   §29.31

c.   Requesting Reporter’s Transcript   §29.32

F.   Filing Briefs in Appellate Division of Superior Court   §29.33

G.   Filing Briefs in Court of Appeal   §29.34

H.   Purpose of Oral Argument   §29.35

I.   Decision on Appeal and Rehearing   §29.36

J.   Relief for Tenant After Reversal   §29.37

K.   Costs and Attorney Fees on Appeal   §29.38

L.   Abandonment of Appeal   §29.39

M.   Transfer to District Court of Appeal

1.   Transfer of Appeal of Limited Civil Case From Superior Court to Court of Appeal   §29.40

2.   When Transfer Is Denied by District Court   §29.41

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30

Civil Writs

I.    CIVIL WRITS IN GENERAL    §30.1

II.    NATURE AND SCOPE OF WRIT    §30.2

A.   Conditions Under Which Writ of Mandate Will Issue    §30.3

B.   Alternative and Peremptory Writs of Mandate    §30.4

C.   Factors in Deciding Whether to Seek Writ    §30.5

III.    OBTAINING A STAY OF EXECUTION PENDING APPEAL OR DECISION ON PETITION FOR WRIT OF MANDATE   §30.6

IV.    PERSUADING COURT THAT WRIT SHOULD BE GRANTED    §30.7

A.   Inadequacy of Other Remedy Must Be Shown    §30.8

B.   No Direct Appeal    §30.9

C.   Common Situations in Which Relief by Writ Is Sought    §30.10

D.   Direct Appeal Possible    §30.11

V.    PROCEDURE IN OBTAINING WRIT

A.   Relief Must First Be Sought in Lower Court    §30.12

B.   Court in Which Writ Petition Must Be Filed    §30.13

C.   Applicable Statutes and Rules of Court    §30.14

D.   Names of Parties    §30.15

E.   Time Limitation    §30.16

F.   Procedures in Superior Court    §30.17

G.   Pleadings in Mandamus Proceeding    §30.18

1.   Contents of Petition    §30.19

2.   Common Errors in Petitions for Writ    §30.20

3.   Opposition to Issuance of Writ    §30.21

H.   Hearing    §30.22

I.   Issuance of Peremptory Writ    §30.23

J.   Mootness    §30.24

K.   Damages and Costs    §30.25

VI.    REVIEW OF SUPERIOR COURT ACTION ON WRIT    §30.26

VII.    APPEAL FROM DISTRICT COURT OF APPEAL DECISION TO SUPREME COURT    §30.27

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31

Return of Security Deposit and Disposition of Last Month’s Rent

I.    TENANT’S RIGHTS IN SECURITY DEPOSIT AND LAST MONTH’S RENT    §31.1

II.    PAYMENTS TO LANDLORD ON SIGNING OF LEASE THAT ARE NOT CONSIDERED “SECURITY”    §31.2

III.    SECURITY “DISGUISED” AS ADVANCE RENT    §31.3

IV.    EFFECT OF DESIGNATION OF DEPOSIT AS “LAST MONTH’S RENT” RATHER THAN “SECURITY DEPOSIT”    §31.4

V.    LIMITATIONS ON AMOUNT OF SECURITY THAT MAY BE REQUIRED    §31.5

VI.    TENANT’S CLAIM TO SECURITY HAS PRIORITY OVER THAT OF LANDLORD’S CREDITORS    §31.6

VII.    SECURITY MAY NOT BE NONREFUNDABLE    §31.7

VIII.    PROVING AMOUNT OF SECURITY DEPOSIT    §31.8

IX.    LIMITS ON LANDLORD’S USE OF SECURITY DEPOSIT    §31.9

X.    LANDLORD’S DUTY TO RETURN DEPOSIT    §31.10

A.   Tenant’s Right to Request Inspection of Premises and Cure Deficiencies; Use of Deposit    §31.10A

B.   Tenant’s Right to Refund of Security Deposit Balance and Accounting    §31.10B

XI.    LANDLORD’S SALE OR OTHER TRANSFER OF PREMISES    §31.11

XII.    INTEREST ON SECURITY DEPOSIT    §31.12

XIII.    DAMAGES FOR LANDLORD’S IMPROPER RETENTION OF DEPOSIT    §31.13

XIV.    EFFECT ON UNLAWFUL DETAINER    §31.14

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1

Overview of Unlawful Detainer Law

I.    SCOPE OF THIS BOOK   §1.1

II.    LANDLORD’S ALTERNATIVES TO UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION   §1.2

III.    ETHICS   §1.3

IV.    SUMMARY OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER PROCESS   §1.4

A.   Description of Unlawful Detainer Action   §1.5

B.   Reduced Time Frame Governing Unlawful Detainer Procedure   §1.6

C.   Landlord Must Strictly Comply With Statutory Requirements   §1.7

D.   Notice Requirements   §1.8

E.   Bases for Terminating Tenancy; Applicable Notice   §1.9

1.   Termination Requiring 3-Day Notice (Longer Notice Permitted)   §1.10

2.   Termination Requiring 30-Day or 60-Day Notice   §1.11

3.   Termination Requiring Other Notice   §1.12

4.   Termination Requiring No Notice   §1.13

F.   Jurisdiction and Venue   §1.14

G.   Default Judgment   §1.15

H.   Bases for Defending Unlawful Detainer Actions   §1.16

I.   Trial

1.   Tenant Entitled to Jury Trial if Answer Presents Admissible Defenses   §1.17

2.   Rent and Damages Awardable to Landlord   §1.18

J.   Posttrial Motions   §1.19

K.   Execution by Sheriff   §1.20

V.    SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL TENANT RESPONSES TO LANDLORD’S ACTIONS   §1.20A

VI.    INVALIDITY OF LEASE PROVISION WAIVING TENANT’S RIGHTS   §1.21

VII.    WRIT OF IMMEDIATE POSSESSION   §1.22

VIII.    UNAVAILABILITY OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER IF TENANT IS NO LONGER IN POSSESSION OF PREMISES   §1.23

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2

Relationship of Unlawful Detainer to Other Actions

I.    ISSUES NOT COGNIZABLE IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS   §2.1

II.    COORDINATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER WITH OTHER ACTIONS   §2.2

A.   Coordination of Complex Actions   §2.2A

B.   Transfer of Noncomplex Actions   §2.2B

C.   Consolidation of Actions Pending in Same County   §2.2C

III.    CONVERSION OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION TO ACTION FOR EJECTMENT   §2.3

IV.    SEVERING POSSESSION ISSUE FROM RENT-DUE ISSUE   §2.4

V.    TENANT’S SUIT FOR DECLARATORY OR INJUNCTIVE RELIEF; STAY OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION

A.   Overview: Can Unlawful Detainer Actions Be Enjoined?  §2.5

B.   Obtaining Injunctive Relief

1.   Legal Basis; Grounds   §2.5A

2.   The Newby Exception: Adequate Remedy at Law   §2.5B

3.   Overcoming Newby Limitations   §2.5C

4.   Procedure; Bond Required   §2.5D

VI.    LANDLORD’S SUIT FOR INJUNCTIVE RELIEF   §2.6

VII.    ACTIONS AFTER ENTRY OF JUDGMENT   §2.7

VIII.    ARBITRATION PROVISION IN LEASE   §2.8

IX.    ADMINISTRATIVE MANDAMUS   §2.9

X.    BANKRUPTCY   §2.10

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3

Self-Help by Landlord

I.    USE OF SELF-HELP BY LANDLORD   §3.1

II.    FORCIBLE ENTRY AND DETAINER   §3.2

A.   Examples of Forcible Entry and Detainer   §3.3

B.   Retaking Abandoned Premises Is Not Forcible Entry or Detainer   §3.4

C.   Recovering Punitive Damages for Forcible Entry or Detainer Requires Showing of Malice   §3.5

III.    SHUTTING OFF UTILITIES OR OTHERWISE BARRING TENANT’S USE OF PROPERTY

A.   Civil Code §789.3   §3.6

B.   Remedies Under Public Utilities Code and CC §1942.2   §3.6A

IV.    OTHER ACTIONS BY LANDLORD THAT MAKE PREMISES UNINHABITABLE   §3.7

V.    SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF TENANTS IN RESIDENTIAL HOTELS   §3.8

VI.    SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF LODGERS   §3.9

VII.    SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF OCCUPANTS OF TRANSITIONAL HOUSING   §3.10

VIII.    SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF HOTEL GUESTS   §3.11

IX.    ANTI-HARASSMENT STATUTE (CC §1940.2)   §3.12

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4

Representing the Tenant; Office Procedures

I.    OFFICE PROCEDURES   §4.1

II.    LAW OFFICE AUTOMATION   §4.2

III.    LEGAL REFERENCE MATERIALS   §4.3

A.   Necessary Legal Sources and Forms   §4.4

B.   Useful Additional Library Materials   §4.5

IV.    INITIAL STEPS BEFORE DECIDING WHETHER TO REPRESENT TENANT

A.   Initial (Telephone) Contact With Prospective Client   §4.6

B.   Form: Telephone Intake Form   §4.7

C.   Scheduling Meeting With Prospective Client   §4.8

D.   Conflict of Interest in Representing Tenant

1.   Performing a Conflicts Check   §4.9

2.   Common Conflict Situations in Unlawful Detainer Actions   §4.10

E.   Initial Meeting With Prospective Client   §4.11

F.   Use of Client Interview Questionnaire   §4.12

G.   Form: Client Interview Questionnaire   §4.13

H.   Conduct of Initial Meeting   §4.14

I.   Investigate Tenant’s Relationship With Former Counsel and Any Litigation History   §4.15

J.   Contact Landlord’s Attorney for Preliminary Look at Opposing View of Case   §4.16

K.   Initial Assessment of Case   §4.17

L.   Scope of Initial Assessment   §4.18

M.   Allaying Tenant’s Fears   §4.19

V.    REPRESENTATION OF TENANT

A.   Decision to Represent Tenant   §4.20

1.   If Attorney Will Not Represent or Assist Tenant   §4.21

2.   When More Time Needed for Decision on Representation   §4.22

3.   Form: Substitution of Attorney—Civil (Without Court Order) (Judicial Council Form MC-050; Mandatory)   §4.23

4.   If Attorney and Tenant Agree That Attorney Will Represent or Assist Tenant   §4.24

5.   Disclosure Regarding Professional Liability Insurance   §4.24A

B.   Representation Agreements and Ground Rules   §4.25

1.   Delegating Tasks to Client   §4.26

2.   Contents of Representation Agreement   §4.27

3.   Form: Representation Agreement—Private Practitioner   §4.28

4.   Form: Client Retainer Agreement—Legal Services Organization   §4.29

C.   Limited Scope Representation (Unbundling)

1.   Applicable Law   §4.29A

2.   Checklist: Tenant Fee Agreement   §4.29B

D.   Deposit of Rent Due Into Client Trust Account   §4.30

E.   Form: Requirement for Deposit of Rent Into Attorney-Client Trust Account   §4.31

VI.    PROCEDURE AFTER REPRESENTATION IS UNDERTAKEN

A.   Ascertain Goal of Representation   §4.32

1.   Ascertain Whether Tenant Wants to Continue Living in Rental Unit   §4.33

2.   Goal of Representation Is Not Necessarily Successful Defense of Unlawful Detainer Action   §4.34

B.   Counsel Should Investigate Facts of Case   §4.35

C.   Determining Defense Strategy   §4.36

D.   Making Choices on Strategy and Tactics   §4.37

E.   Example of Strategic and Tactical Choices in Procedure When Defective 3-Day Notice Was Served   §4.38

1.   Strategy and Tactics: Filing Motion to Quash Service of Summons or Demurrer   §4.39

2.   Strategy and Tactics: Filing an Answer   §4.40

3.   Strategy and Tactics: Filing Motion for Summary Judgment   §4.41

F.   Counsel Should Simultaneously File Pleadings, Conduct Discovery, and Negotiate   §4.42

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5

Grounds for Eviction

I.    GROUNDS FOR EVICTION GENERALLY   §5.1

II.    GROUNDS FOR EVICTION BASED ON TENANT’S DEFAULT; 3-DAY NOTICE REQUIRED   §5.2

III.    REASONS FOR TERMINATION NOT BASED ON TENANT’S DEFAULT; NOTICE REQUIRED   §5.3

IV.    REASONS FOR TERMINATION NOT BASED ON TENANT’S DEFAULT; NOTICE NOT REQUIRED   §5.4

V.    TERMINATING MOBILEHOME PARK TENANCIES   §5.5

VI.    EVICTION BROUGHT BY CITY PROSECUTOR OR CITY ATTORNEY   §5.6

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6

Three-Day Notice

I.    PURPOSE AND EFFECT OF 3-DAY NOTICE   §6.1

A.   Purpose of 3-Day Notice   §6.2

B.   If 3-Day Notice Is Defective   §6.3

II.    IMMEDIATE TENANT RESPONSE TO SERVICE OF 3-DAY NOTICE (BEFORE COMPLAINT HAS BEEN FILED)   §6.4

III.    STRICT COMPLIANCE WITH STATUTE IS REQUIRED   §6.5

IV.    NOTICE REQUIRED EVEN IF LEASE PROVIDES THAT IT IS NOT NECESSARY   §6.6

V.    COMPUTATION OF NOTICE PERIOD   §6.7

VI.    NOTICE IS VALID EVEN THOUGH IT CONTAINS MORE THAN ONE REASON FOR EVICTION   §6.8

VII.    NOTICE MAY BE WITHDRAWN   §6.9

VIII.    FORM OF NOTICE   §6.10

A.   Notice Must Be in Writing   §6.11

B.   Description of Premises in Notice   §6.12

C.   Signature on Notice   §6.13

D.   Demand for Possession Must Be Unequivocal   §6.14

E.   Statement of Three Days in Notice Itself May Not Be Required   §6.15

F.   Notice May Declare Election of Forfeiture   §6.16

G.   Demand for Rent and Charges

1.   Notice to Quit Must Include Demand for Rent as Alternative   §6.17

2.   Notice Must Specify No More Than Rent Actually Due   §6.18

a.   Precise Amount of Rent Need Not Be Specified if Calculation of Rent Depends on Tenant’s Accounting   §6.19

b.   Statement of Rent Due, and Additional Claims in Notice   §6.20

                           c.   Effect of Federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act   §6.20A

3.   Notice Seeks Less Than Actual Amount Owed   §6.21

4.   One-Year Limitation on Amount of Rent That Can Be Demanded   §6.22

5.   Inclusion of Late Charges in Notice   §6.23

6.   Validity of Late Charges Landlord Claims Are Due

a.   As Liquidated Damages   §6.24

b.   As Violation of Usury Law   §6.24A

IX.    SERVICE OF NOTICE

A.   When Notice May Be Served   §6.25

1.   “Holidays” Defined   §6.26

2.   When Tenant May Perform Under Notice   §6.27

B.   Method of Service   §6.28

C.   Statutory Requirements for Service of 3-Day Notice   §6.29

X.    WHEN 3-DAY NOTICE IS BASED ON FAILURE TO PAY RENT   §6.30

XI.    TENDER OF RENT

A.   Method of Tender of Rent   §6.31

B.   Proof That Tender Was Made   §6.32

C.   Depositing Money in Landlord’s Bank Account   §6.33

D.   Effect of Tender of Rent on Obligation to Pay Rent   §6.34

E.   Time of Tender of Rent

1.   Tender of Rent Before Service of Notice   §6.35

2.   Tender of Rent After Notice Is Served and Before Notice Period Expires   §6.36

3.   Tender of Rent After Notice Period Has Expired   §6.37

XII.    WHEN 3-DAY NOTICE IS BASED ON DEFAULT UNDER LEASE OTHER THAN FAILURE TO PAY RENT

A.   Violation of Covenant in Lease Generally; Statutory Basis for 3-Day Notice   §6.38

1.   Express and Implied Covenants   §6.39

2.   Trivial or Technical Breach Not Sufficient   §6.40

3.   Waiver and Estoppel   §6.41

4.   Repeated Acceptance of Late Rent   §6.42

5.   Effect of Tenant’s Performance   §6.43

6.   Whether Notice Must Be Given in Alternative   §6.44

7.   Stating the Breach   §6.45

B.   Violation of Covenant Against Subletting, Assignment, or Waste; Maintaining Nuisance; or Using Premises for Unlawful Purpose   §6.46

1.   Subletting, Assignment, and Waste   §6.47

2.   Nuisance   §6.48

3.   Unlawful Purpose   §6.49

XIII.    SALE UNDER EXECUTION, MORTGAGE, OR TRUST DEED   §6.50

XIV.    COMMON FLAWS IN 3-DAY NOTICE OR ITS SERVICE THAT RENDER NOTICE INEFFECTIVE   §6.51

XV.    EFFECT OF SERVICE OF MORE THAN ONE NOTICE   §6.52

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7

Thirty-Day/Sixty-Day Notices and Termination Without Notice

I.    TERMINATING PERIODIC TENANCIES

A.   Using 30-Day Notice   §7.1

B.   Using 60-Day Notice   §7.1A

II.    IMMEDIATE TENANT RESPONSE TO SERVICE OF NOTICE   §7.2

III.    TENANT REMAINS IN POSSESSION AFTER TERMINATION

A.   “Holdover” Tenant Defined   §7.3

B.   Tenant Serves Landlord With Notice of Termination and Remains in Possession After Termination Period   §7.4

C.   Term Has Expired but Tenant Holds Over   §7.5

D.   Termination of Employment of Resident Employee   §7.6

E.   Death of Tenant   §7.7

F.   Expiration of Fixed-Term Lease   §7.8

G.   Effect of Landlord’s Acceptance of Rent After Expiration of Fixed Term   §7.9

H.   Effect of Clause Providing for Automatic Extension or Renewal   §7.9A

I.   Lodger Who Holds Over in Owner-Occupied Dwelling   §7.10

J.   Expiration of Periodic (Generally Month-to-Month) Lease   §7.11

IV.    LENGTH OF PERIOD OF NOTICE

A.   Shortened Notice Periods by Agreement   §7.12

B.   Date on Which Mailed Notice Is Effective   §7.13

C.   Notice Period Must Expire Before Complaint Can Be Filed   §7.14

V.    WITHDRAWAL OF NOTICE; ACCEPTANCE OF RENT PAYMENTS   §7.15

VI.    FORM OF NOTICE

A.   Notice Must Be in Writing   §7.16

B.   Description of Premises and Signature   §7.17

C.   Notice Cannot Be in the Alternative   §7.18

D.   Statement of 30 or 60 Days   §7.19

E.   Cover Sheet; Evictions After Foreclosure   §7.19A

VII.    APPORTIONMENT OF RENT   §7.20

VIII.    METHOD OF SERVICE   §7.21

IX.    TENANCY AT WILL   §7.22

X.    EFFECT OF SERVICE OF 30-DAY OR 60-DAY NOTICE IN CONJUNCTION WITH SERVICE OF 3-DAY NOTICE   §7.23

XI.    COMMON FLAWS IN NOTICE OR ITS SERVICE, RENDERING NOTICE INEFFECTIVE   §7.24

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8

Service of Notices on Tenant

I.    EVALUATING SERVICE OF NOTICE   §8.1

II.    METHODS OF SERVICE OF NOTICE   §8.2

A.   Personal Service   §8.3

B.   Substituted Service (CCP §1162(a)(2))   §8.4

C.   Service by Posting, Delivery, and Mail (CCP §1162(a)(3))   §8.5

1.   Service by Posting Alone Is Insufficient   §8.6

2.   Service by Mail Alone Is Insufficient   §8.7

D.   Extension of Tenant’s Time to Act When Notice Is Mailed   §8.8

1.   Notice Effective on Receipt   §8.8A

2.   Notice Effective on Mailing   §8.8B

3.   Effective Date of Notice Extended by CCP §1013   §8.8C

4.   Rationale Favoring Extension of Response Period Under CCP §1013 When Notice Is Mailed   §8.9

III.    IMPROPER SERVICE

A.   Effect of Defective Service of Notice   §8.10

B.   Actual Receipt of Improperly Served Notice   §8.11

IV.    EFFECT OF SERVICE ON PERSONS OTHER THAN TENANT   §8.12

A.   Occupants Who Are Neither Tenants nor Subtenants   §8.13

B.   Cotenants   §8.14

C.   Subtenants   §8.15

V.    EXAMPLES OF COMMON MISTAKES IN SERVICE   §8.16

VI.    PROOF OF SERVICE OF NOTICE   §8.17

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9

Negotiating Strategies

I.    IMPORTANCE OF NEGOTIATION AND EARLY SETTLEMENT   §9.1

A.   Definitions of Terms: “Negotiation,” “Target Point,” “Resistance Level,” and “Bottom Line”   §9.2

B.   Determining Tenant’s Goals and Expectations   §9.3

C.   Determining the Bargaining Range   §9.4

D.   Possible Bargaining Outcomes   §9.5

E.   Evaluating Case   §9.6

II.    KEY FACTORS TOWARD SETTLEMENT IN TENANT’S FAVOR

A.   Merits of Tenant’s Case   §9.7

B.   Whether Tenant Is Willing to Relinquish Possession   §9.8

C.   Whether Tenant Is Impervious to Judgment for Damages   §9.9

D.   Whether Rental Agreement Contains Attorney Fee Clause   §9.10

III.    DEVELOPING A BARGAINING STRATEGY   §9.11

A.   Look for Means to Strengthen Tenant’s Case and Weaken Landlord’s   §9.12

B.   Tenant’s Attorney Must Be Ready to Move Quickly to Take Advantage of Settlement Opportunities   §9.13

C.   Tenant’s Attorney Should Be Aware of Landlord’s Goals and Fears   §9.14

D.   Determining How Much to Demand in Initial Settlement Offer   §9.15

IV.    ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FACING OPPOSING COUNSEL KNOWN TO TENANT’S COUNSEL   §9.16

V.    USING BARGAINING TACTICS   §9.17

VI.    COMMUNICATING WARNINGS TO OPPOSING PARTY   §9.18

VII.    WHEN LANDLORD’S COUNSEL APPEARS TO BE DRAWING OUT ACTION TO GENERATE FEES   §9.19

VIII.    DRAFTING SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT   §9.20

IX.    EVALUATING SUCCESS OF SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT   §9.21

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10

Proceeding in Forma Pauperis

I.    AUTHORITY FOR OBTAINING WAIVER OF COURT FEES AND COSTS   §10.1

II.    RIGHT TO PROCEED IN FORMA PAUPERIS   §10.2

III.    SUBSTANTIVE SHOWING OF INDIGENCE   §10.3

IV.    CLASSES OF CLAIMANTS AND CATEGORIES FOR WHICH FEES AND COSTS MAY BE WAIVED   §10.4

V.    FEES AND COSTS IN TRIAL COURT

A.   Types of Fees and Costs Waived by Initial Application   §10.5

B.   Waiver of Other Fees and Costs   §10.6

C.   Applying to Proceed in Forma Pauperis

1.   Procedure for Request for Waiver of Court Fees and Costs   §10.7

2.   Grant of Waiver of Court Fees and Costs Without Hearing   §10.7A

3.   Hearing on Applicant’s Entitlement to Waiver of Court Fees and Costs   §10.7B

4.   Court Issues and Serves Order on Request to Waive Court Fees   §10.7C

5.   Effect of Denial of Waiver on Pleadings Already Filed by Applicant   §10.7D

6.   Procedure for Subsequent Determinations of Fee Waiver Eligibility   §10.8

D.   Right to Waiver or Reimbursement of Discovery Costs   §10.9

E.   Right to Appointment of Attorney   §10.10

VI.    FEES AND COSTS ON APPEAL

A.   Proceeding in Forma Pauperis   §10.11

1.   Filing Fees   §10.11A

2.   Fees for Transcript   §10.11B

3.   Fees for Interpreter   §10.11C

4.   Appeal Bond Fees   §10.11D

B.   Review of Denial of Request   §10.12

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11

Service of Summons and Complaint; Motion to Quash Service of Summons

I.    SERVICE OF SUMMONS AND COMPLAINT   §11.1

II.    IMMEDIATE ACTIONS THAT CAN BE TAKEN ON TENANT’S BEHALF AFTER SERVICE OF SUMMONS   §11.2

III.    ATTEMPTS TO AVOID SERVICE OF SUMMONS   §11.3

IV.    FORM OF SUMMONS   §11.4

V.    FORM: SUMMONS—UNLAWFUL DETAINER—EVICTION (JUDICIAL COUNCIL FORM SUM-130)   §11.5

VI.    SERVICE OF PROCESS   §11.6

A.   Methods of Service   §11.7

B.   Strict Construction of Service Statutes   §11.8

C.   Effect of Defective Service   §11.9

D.   New Summons Need Not Be Served With Service of Amended Complaint   §11.10

E.   Return of Service   §11.11

F.   Personal Service   §11.12

G.   Substituted Service   §11.13

1.   Substituted Service on Individual Defendant   §11.14

2.   Substituted Service on Business Entity   §11.15

3.   Showing Reasonable Diligence   §11.16

4.   Recital on Return of Service   §11.17

H.   Service by Mail With Acknowledgment of Receipt   §11.18

I.   Service by Posting and Mailing   §11.19

J.   Order Allowing Service by Posting   §11.20

K.   Completion Date of Service by Posting   §11.21

L.   Service by Publication   §11.22

VII.    SPECIAL APPEARANCE REQUIRED ON MOTION TO QUASH

A.   What Constitutes a General Appearance   §11.23

B.   Making a Special Appearance   §11.24

VIII.    GROUNDS FOR MOTION TO QUASH   §11.25

A.   Error in Filled-Out Summons   §11.26

B.   Failure to Properly Serve All Required Papers   §11.27

C.   Motion to Quash When Cause of Action Is Not Properly Unlawful Detainer   §11.28

D.   Complaint Contains Another Cause of Action in Addition to Unlawful Detainer   §11.29

E.   Complaint Prays for Damages Not Allowed in Unlawful Detainer   §11.30

F.   Defendant Erroneously Designated

1.   Pleading Requirements; “Doe” Defendants   §11.31

2.   Entering Judgment Against “Doe” Defendant   §11.32

IX.    CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGE TO FIVE-DAYS-TO-ANSWER REQUIREMENT   §11.33

X.    MOTION TO QUASH—PROCEDURE

A.   Time to File Motion; Effect of Motion on Time to File Answer   §11.34

B.   Form of Notice   §11.35

C.   Hearing on Motion to Quash; Burden of Proof   §11.36

D.   Filing Fees   §11.37

XI.    FORM: MOTION TO QUASH SERVICE OF SUMMONS; POINTS AND AUTHORITIES; DECLARATION OF TENANT   §11.38

XII.    FORM: ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO QUASH SERVICE OF SUMMONS   §11.39

XIII.    EFFECT OF GRANTING MOTION TO QUASH   §11.40

XIV.    EFFECT OF DENIAL OF MOTION TO QUASH   §11.41

XV.    APPLICATION FOR WRIT OF MANDATE IF MOTION DENIED   §11.42

XVI.    POSSIBLE EFFECT OF CCP §1167.4 ON WHETHER TIME FOR FILING RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS IS TOLLED BY PETITION FOR WRIT   §11.43

XVII.    CHART: TIMELINE FOR TENANT ACTIONS IF SUMMONS OR SERVICE OF SUMMONS WAS DEFECTIVE   §11.44

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12

Default Judgments

I.    PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING JUDGMENT BY DEFAULT   §12.1

II.    CHECKLIST: OBTAINING RELIEF FROM ENTRY OF DEFAULT   §12.2

III.    SERVICE OF APPLICATION FOR ENTRY OF DEFAULT; LANDLORD’S OBLIGATION TO INFORM TENANT   §12.3

IV.    EFFECT OF ENTRY OF DEFAULT; LATE FILING OF RESPONSE   §12.4

V.    ENTRY OF DEFAULT; WRIT OF IMMEDIATE POSSESSION   §12.5

VI.    PROVE-UP HEARING FOR RELIEF OTHER THAN RESTITUTION   §12.6

VII.    PROCEDURE FOR ENTERING DEFAULT IF SERVICE WAS BY PUBLICATION   §12.7

VIII.    SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT   §12.8

A.   Stipulation to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment   §12.9

B.   Form: Stipulation to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment; Order   §12.10

C.   Procedures for Applying to Set Aside Default   §12.11

D.   Grounds for Setting Aside Default and Default Judgment   §12.12

1.   Mistake, Inadvertence, Surprise, or Excusable Neglect (CCP §473)

a.   Relief May Be Granted for Client or Attorney Error   §12.13

b.   Relief Must Be Granted for Attorney Error   §12.14

c.   Time Limitations on Bringing Motion Under CCP §473   §12.15

d.   Showing in Support of Motion; Declaration   §12.16

e.   Excuses for Default; Examples   §12.17

(1)  Mistake of Fact   §12.18

(2)  Attorney’s Mistake of Law   §12.19

(3)  Excusable Neglect   §12.20

(4)  Fraud   §12.21

2.   Clerical Mistakes; Vacating Void Judgments (CCP §473, ¶4)   §12.22

a.   Judgment Void on Its Face   §12.23

b.   Judgment Void in Fact, But Not Void on Its Face   §12.24

3.   When Service of Summons Does Not Result in Actual Notice to Party (CCP §473.5)   §12.25

4.   Motion or Separate Action in Equity Available to Vacate Judgment on Ground of Fraud or Mistake   §12.26

5.   Erroneously Entered Default or Default Judgment   §12.27

6.   Examples of Erroneously Entered Defaults and Default Judgments   §12.28

IX.    WHEN WRIT OF EXECUTION HAS BEEN ISSUED   §12.29

X.    FORMS: MOTION TO SET ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT

A.   Form: Notice of Motion to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment; Supporting Memorandum   §12.30

B.   Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment   §12.30A

XI.    ORDER SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT   §12.31

XII.    FORM: ORDER SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT   §12.32

XIII.    EFFECT OF ORDER SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT   §12.33

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13

Demurring and Moving to Strike

I.    ATTACKING LEGAL SUFFICIENCY OF COMPLAINT   §13.1

II.    THE DEMURRER   §13.2

A.   Grounds for General Demurrer   §13.3

B.   Grounds for Special Demurrer   §13.4

C.   Sustaining Demurrer With or Without Leave to Amend   §13.5

D.   Demurrer Permitted on Grounds of No Jurisdiction Over Subject Matter   §13.6

E.   Effect of Another Pending Unlawful Detainer Action   §13.7

F.   Parties

1.   Improper Defendant   §13.8

2.   Improper Plaintiff   §13.9

G.   Venue and Trial Court Location   §13.10

H.   Description of Premises With Reasonable Certainty   §13.11

I.   Existence of Landlord-Tenant Relationship   §13.12

J.   Notice of Termination

1.   Alleging Service of Notice   §13.13

2.   Alleging Proper Notice   §13.13A

3.   Alleging Contents of Notice   §13.14

a.   Default in Rent   §13.15

b.   Breach of Covenant Other Than Nonpayment of Rent   §13.16

c.   Subletting, Waste, Nuisance, or Use for Unlawful Purpose   §13.17

d.   Expiration of Term

(1)  Fixed Term   §13.18

(2)  Periodic Tenancy   §13.19

K.   Tenant Continues in Possession   §13.20

L.   Fraud, Force, or Violence   §13.21

M.   Compliance With Implied Warranty of Habitability   §13.22

N.   Statute of Limitations   §13.23

O.   Checklist: Demurrable Defects in Complaint   §13.23A

P.   Form: Demurrer to Complaint   §13.24

III.    MOTION TO STRIKE   §13.25

A.   Irrelevant, False, or Improper Allegations   §13.26

B.   Defects Not Subject to Demurrer   §13.27

C.   Improper Request for Damages   §13.28

D.   Necessary Allegations for Finding Statutory Damages   §13.29

E.   Rental Value of Premises After Suit Brought   §13.30

F.   Attorney Fee Provision in Lease   §13.31

G.   Verification   §13.32

H.   Failure to State “§1161a” in Caption   §13.32A

I.   Sample Form: Motion to Strike   §13.33

IV.    PROCEDURE FOR DEMURRER AND MOTION TO STRIKE

A.   Answer May Be Filed With Demurrer   §13.34

B.   Timing of Hearing on Demurrer and Motion to Strike   §13.35

C.   Supporting Memorandum   §13.36

D.   Effect of Overruling of Demurrer   §13.37

E.   Frivolous Demurrers   §13.38

F.   Motion to Strike   §13.39

V.    FILING FEES   §13.40

VI.    EXTENSION OF TIME TO PLEAD   §13.41

VII.    MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON PLEADINGS   §13.42

VIII.    SPECIAL (ANTI-SLAPP) MOTION TO STRIKE   §13.43

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14

Answering and Alleging Affirmative Defenses

I.    RIGHT TO ANSWER   §14.1

II.    USE OF JUDICIAL COUNCIL FORMS   §14.2

III.    TIME TO ANSWER   §14.3

IV.    GOOD CAUSE TO EXTEND TIME TO ANSWER

A.   Length of Extension   §14.4

B.   Steps Tenant Should Take to Get Extension of Time to File Answer   §14.5

V.    DENIALS   §14.6

VI.    BASES FOR DENIALS   §14.7

VII.    AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES   §14.8

A.   Priority of Title After Foreclosure Sale   §14.9

B.   Implied Warranty of Habitability and Retaliatory Eviction   §14.10

C.   “Equitable” Defenses   §14.11

D.   Laches   §14.12

E.   Other Affirmative Defenses   §14.13

F.   Illegal Discrimination   §14.13A

1.   Violation of Unruh Civil Rights Act as Defense   §14.14

a.   Application of Unruh Act to Landlords   §14.15

b.   Prohibition of Arbitrary Discrimination Under Unruh Act   §14.16

c.   Minimum Income Policy   §14.17

d.   Examples of Reach of Unruh Act   §14.18

2.   Discrimination Based on Age

a.   Discrimination Against Families With Children   §14.19

b.   Senior Citizen Housing   §14.20

3.   Discrimination Under Federal Fair Housing Acts   §14.21

4.   Discrimination Under California Fair Employment and Housing Act   §14.22

5.   Family Day Care Home   §14.22A

6.   Immigration Status   §14.22B

7.   Domestic Violence   §14.22C

G.   Other Violations of Housing Statutes and Ordinances

1.   Certificate of Occupancy Violations   §14.23

2.   Landlord’s Duty to Repair; “Repair and Deduct” Statutes (CC §§1941–1942.5)   §14.24

3.   Violation of Tenantability Statutes (CC §1942.4)   §14.24A

a.   Indications That Premises Are Untenantable   §14.25

b.   Conditions Rebuttably Presumed to Breach Habitability Requirements   §14.26

c.   If Tenant Causes Condition of Premises   §14.27

d.   Tenant’s Remedies   §14.28

e.   Waiver of Tenant’s Rights   §14.29

4.   Statutory Violations Under Rent Control   §14.30

H.   Fraud   §14.31

I.   Adhesion Contract   §14.32

J.   Waiver and Estoppel   §14.33

K.   Express Promise to Repair   §14.34

1.   Dependent or Independent Covenants   §14.35

2.   Oral Promise Made Before Written Lease   §14.36

a.   Consideration   §14.37

b.   Statute of Frauds   §14.38

c.   Parol Evidence Rule as Applied to Leases   §14.39

                           d.   Dependency of Covenants   §14.40

3.   Tenant’s Arguments for Admission of Oral Promise Made Before or at Time of Execution of Written Agreement   §14.41

4.   Oral Promise Made Before Entry Into Oral Lease   §14.42

5.   Promise Made Subsequent to Lease   §14.43

6.   When Tenant Makes Promise to Repair   §14.43A

L.   Implied Covenant of Good Faith   §14.44

M.   Actual Partial Eviction   §14.45

N.   Notice Served More Than One Year After Rent Due   §14.46

O.   Breach of Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment   §14.47

P.   Offsets   §14.48

Q.   When Tenant Has Vacated Premises   §14.49

VII.    VERIFICATION   §14.50

VIII.    FILING ANSWER AFTER RULING ON DEMURRER   §14.51

IX.    EXTENSION OF TIME TO PLEAD   §14.52

X.    AMENDING ANSWER   §14.53

XI.    CROSS-COMPLAINTS   §14.54

A.   When Tenant Has Vacated Premises   §14.55

B.   When Landlord Fails to Challenge Cross-Complaint   §14.56

C.   Procedure   §14.57

D.   Form: Answer—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-105) [Deleted]   §14.58

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15

Affirmative Defenses—Implied Warranty of Habitability

I.    INTRODUCTION

A.   Adoption of Implied Warranty of Habitability: Hinson v Delis; Green v Superior Court   §15.1

B.   Definition of Implied Warranty of Habitability   §15.2

C.   Supreme Court Rationale in Adopting Implied Warranty Doctrine   §15.3

D.   Landlord May Be Held in Breach Even if Another Is Responsible for Defect   §15.4

E.   Time Within Which Landlord Must Correct Defects   §15.5

II.    USES OF IMPLIED WARRANTY OF HABITABILITY DOCTRINE   §15.6

A.   When Warranty Used in Suit for Affirmative Damages and Other Relief   §15.7

B.   Procedure When Using Warranty as Defense in Unlawful Detainer Action   §15.8

C.   Effect of Tenant Prevailing at Trial on Warranty Defense   §15.9

III.    ESTABLISHING BREACH OF WARRANTY

A.   Facilities Covered   §15.10

1.   Government-Owned Housing   §15.11

2.   Portions of Premises Covered by Warranty of Habitability   §15.12

B.   Housing and Building Code Violations

1.   Sources of Housing and Building Code Standards   §15.13

2.   Examples of Housing and Building Code Violations   §15.13A

3.   Jury Instructions Relating to Code Violations   §15.14

4.   Defects Actionable Under Implied Warranty or Negligence But Not Covered by Housing and Building Codes   §15.15

C.   Failure to Protect Tenants From Criminal Acts   §15.16

1.   Determining Whether Landlord Has a Duty to Protect Against Criminal Acts   §15.17

2.   Examples of Duty Not Found or Duty Held Not Breached   §15.18

3.   Examples of Duty Found or Landlord Held in Breach   §15.19

4.   Breach of Duty Raised by Allegation of Breach of Implied Warranty   §15.20

5.   Level of Security at Time Tenant Moves Into Premises   §15.21

6.   Proving Causation   §15.21A

D.   Seriousness of Defects

1.   Requirement That Defects Be Serious   §15.22

2.   Examples of Defects Held Serious Enough to Constitute Breach of Implied Warranty   §15.23

3.   Evidence of Breach   §15.24

a.   Proving That Existing Conditions Violate Code   §15.25

b.   Presumption of Breach of Habitability Standards   §15.26

c.   Viewing the Premises   §15.27

E.   Special Problems

1.   Premises Uninhabitable at Inception of Tenancy   §15.28

2.   Premises Become Uninhabitable After Tenant Is Served With Notice of Termination   §15.29

3.   Waiver of Warranty   §15.30

4.   Defect Caused by Tenant’s Wrongful Action   §15.31

5.   Defects Caused by Acts of Nature   §15.32

IV.    NOTICE OF DEFECT   §15.33

V.    REASONABLE TIME TO REPAIR NOT REQUIRED   §15.34

VI.    PROTECTIVE ORDERS   §15.35

A.   When Protective Orders Are Appropriate   §15.36

B.   Advantages to Tenant of Voluntary Deposit Into Attorney’s Trust Account   §15.37

VII.    DAMAGES FOR BREACH OF IMPLIED WARRANTY   §15.38

A.   Relief Based on Affirmative Defense of Breach of Implied Warranty   §15.39

1.   Period During Which Damages Accrue   §15.40

2.   Tenant Must Pay “Reasonable Rent” Even if Warranty Breached   §15.41

3.   Various Approaches to Measuring Damages   §15.42

a.   “Difference-in-Value” Approach   §15.43

b.   “Discomfort-and-Annoyance” Approach   §15.44

c.   “Percentage-Reduction-of-Use” Approach   §15.45

4.   Limits on Amount by Which Rent May Be Reduced   §15.46

5.   Amount of Rent Reduction in Subsidized Housing   §15.46A

6.   Nominal Damage Awards   §15.47

B.   Actions Brought Under CC §1942.4   §15.48

C.   Actions Based on Tort of Breach of Implied Warranty   §15.49

D.   Hybrid View of Warranty of Habitability—Contract and Tort   §15.50

VIII.    EFFECT OF RECENT PURCHASE OF PROPERTY BY LANDLORD   §15.51

        IX.    LACK OF CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY   §15.52

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16

Affirmative Defenses—Retaliatory Evictions

I.    LEGAL FRAMEWORK   §16.1

II.    SEVERAL SOURCES OF LAW MAY APPLY SIMULTANEOUSLY   §16.2

A.   Civil Code §1942.5

1.   Tenants’ Actions on Habitability (CC §1942.5(a))

a.   Protected Parties and Acts   §16.3

b.   Limitations on Protection

(1)  Tenant Cannot Be in Default in Payment of Rent   §16.4

(2)  Tenant May Not Invoke CC §1942.5(a) More Than Once a Year   §16.5

(3)  Protective Period Under CC §1942.5 Limited to 180 Days   §16.6

(4)  Defense Unavailable in Ellis Act Evictions   §16.6A

2.   Tenant Union Activity (CC §1942.5(c))   §16.7

3.   Exercise of “Rights Under Law” (CC §1942.5(c))   §16.8

a.   Additional Examples of Acts Protected by CC §1942.5(c)   §16.9

b.   Examples of Acts Protected Before Enactment of CC §1942.5   §16.10

4.   Tenant Cannot Waive Rights (CC §1942.5(d))   §16.11

5.   Notice and Burden of Proof (CC §1942.5(e))   §16.12

6.   Procedure for Proving Retaliation When Landlord Includes Grounds in Notice (CC §1942.5(e))   §16.13

7.   Remedies (CC §1942.5(f)–(g)); Punitive Damages and Attorney Fees   §16.14

8.   Remedies Not Exclusive (CC §1942.5(h))   §16.15

B.   Public Policy; Retaliation for Refusal to Commit Crime Improper   §16.16

C.   Victims of Domestic Violence   §16.16A

D.   Other Statutory Rights

1.   Retaliation Based on Tenant’s Assertion of Statutory Rights; Implied Protection   §16.17

2.   Retaliation Based on Tenant’s Assertion of Statutory Rights; Express Statutory Protection   §16.18

3.   Common Law   §16.19

4.   Local Rent Control Ordinances   §16.20

5.   Constitution   §16.21

III.    LIMITATIONS ON RETALIATORY EVICTION DEFENSE   §16.21A

IV.    PROOF OF RETALIATORY MOTIVE

A.   Sole or Dominant Motive   §16.22

B.   Treatment of Mixed Motives in Labor Law   §16.23

C.   Presumptions and Burden of Proof   §16.24

D.   Evidence   §16.25

E.   Analogies Drawn From Labor Law to Prove Retaliatory Motive   §16.26

F.   Form: Affirmative Defense on Ground of Retaliatory Eviction   §16.27

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17

Special Considerations Governing Evictions in Rent-Controlled Cities

Myron Moskovitz
Sonya Bekoff Molho
Steven A. MacDonald
Denise McGranahan
Sallyann Molloy

I.    SCOPE OF LOCAL RENT CONTROL ORDINANCES

A.   Local Control Versus State Preemption   §17.1

B.   Statewide Vacancy Decontrol

1.   Existing Housing   §17.1A

a.   Phase-In Periods   §17.1B

b.   Lease Restrictions on Subletting Allowed   §17.1C

c.   Exceptions to Preemptive Effect   §17.1D

2.   New Construction and Single-Unit Exclusions   §17.1E

a.   Phase-In Periods for Condominiums and Single-Family Homes   §17.1F

b.   Exceptions to Preemptive Effect   §17.1G

II.    PRACTICE CONSIDERATIONS IN RENT CONTROL JURISDICTIONS   §17.2

III.    CITIES SUBJECT TO RENT CONTROL   §17.3

IV.    EVICTIONS AND RENT CONTROL

A.   Overview   §17.4

B.   Just Cause for Eviction   §17.5

1.   Failure to Pay Rent   §17.6

2.   Failure to Cure Violation of Rental Agreement   §17.7

3.   Conduct Constituting a Nuisance   §17.8

4.   Use of Premises for Illegal Purpose   §17.9

5.   Refusal to Permit Landlord Access to Premises   §17.10

6.   Refusal to Execute New Lease   §17.11

7.   Subletting   §17.12

8.   Violation of Lease Restricting Occupancy   §17.12A

a.   Exception: Relative or Domestic Partner of Tenant   §17.12B

b.   Exception: Surviving Relative of Deceased Tenant   §17.12C

                           c.   Exception: Landlord Knowingly Accepts Rent From Occupant   §17.12D

9.   Rehabilitation of Unit   §17.13

10.   Demolition or Conversion of Units—Ellis Act Evictions   §17.14

a.   Constitutional Challenges; Preemption   §17.14A

b.   Effect of Other State Laws   §17.14B

11.   Occupancy by Owner or Owner’s Relative   §17.15

a.   Representing Tenants in Evictions for Owner Occupancy   §17.16

b.   Good Faith in Owner-Occupancy Evictions   §17.17

12.   Grounds Not Stated in Ordinance: Termination of Manager; Foreclosure   §17.18

13.   Failure to Use Premises as Principal Residence   §17.18A

C.   Notice and Pleading Requirements   §17.19

D.   Burdens of Proof and Presumptions   §17.20

E.   Defenses to Evictions   §17.21

F.   Statute of Limitations   §17.22

G.   Damages for Unlawful Evictions   §17.23

H.   Attorney Fees   §17.24

V.    NEGOTIATING AND DEFENDING ELLIS ACT EVICTIONS

A.   Preliminary Considerations

1.   Scope of Ellis Act   §17.25

2.   Representing Organized Tenants   §17.26

3.   Factual Investigation

a.   Review Notices and Status of All Affected Units   §17.27

b.   Explain Ellis Process to Client   §17.28

c.   Ascertain Client’s Age, Health, and Economic Status   §17.29

d.   Investigate Unexpired Leases   §17.30

B.   Relocation Benefits   §17.31

1.   Benefits Available for Displaced Tenants Regardless of Income   §17.32

2.   Landlord’s Misrepresentation of Availability of Benefits   §17.33

3.   Documentation Proving Eligibility   §17.34

4.   Other Issues Affecting Payment of Benefits

a.   Timely Payment   §17.35

b.   Waiver of Relocation Fees   §17.36

c.   One Fee per Unit   §17.37

d.   Services in Lieu of Fees   §17.38

e.   Failure to Pay Fees   §17.39

C.   Technical Defenses Based on Notice and Filing Requirements   §17.40

D.   Unexpired Leases   §17.41

E.   Tenant’s Options Regarding Unlawful Detainer Action Under Ellis Act

1.   Answering the Complaint   §17.42

2.   Retaliatory Eviction Defense Limited   §17.43

3.   Failure to Take All Units Off Market   §17.44

4.   Other Possible Defenses   §17.45

F.   Discovering Violations After Eviction

1.   Use of Ellis Act to Move Out Long-Term Tenants   §17.46

2.   Use of Post-Ellis Property for Home Ownership   §17.47

a.   Effect of State and Local Subdivision Laws   §17.48

b.   Effect of State and Local Laws Regulating Apartment Conversions   §17.49

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18

Special Considerations Governing Evictions From Federally Assisted Housing

Catherine M. Bishop
Nancy Ann Palandati
Deborah A. Collins

I.    “FEDERALLY ASSISTED LOW-INCOME HOUSING” DEFINED   §18.1

II.    ASCERTAINING WHETHER TENANT LIVES IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING AND, IF SO, WHAT KIND   §18.2

III.    TYPES OF FEDERAL HOUSING PROGRAMS   §18.3

A.   Public Housing   §18.3A

B.   Section 8   §18.3B

C.   HUD-Assisted and -Subsidized Housing   §18.3C

D.   HUD-Assisted Units Threatened With Prepayment of Mortgage or Opt-Out of Section 8 Contract   §18.3D

E.   Rural Housing Service (RHS) Subsidized Rental Housing   §18.3E

F.   Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC)   §18.3F

G.   Other State and Local Programs   §18.3G

IV.    SUBSTANTIVE RIGHTS IN EVICTION ACTIONS

A.   Application of State Law   §18.4

B.   Evictions After Foreclosure

1.   Preemptive Measures Governing Evictions   §18.4A

2.   Postponing Sale of Multifamily Residential Buildings   §18.4B

C.   Good Cause Requirement   §18.5

1.   Public Housing   §18.6

2.   Project-Based Section 8 and HUD-Assisted and -Subsidized Housing   §18.7

3.   Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program   §18.8

4.   Rural Housing Service (RHS) Rental Housing   §18.9

5.   State and Local Housing Programs for Low-Income Families   §18.10

6.   Other Housing Programs for Low-Income Families   §18.11

D.   Facts Constituting Good Cause   §18.12

1.   Failure to Pay Rent   §18.13

2.   Serious Tenant Wrongdoing, Including Criminal Activity

a.   Violation of Lease or State or Federal Law   §18.14

                           b.   Drug or Criminal Activity

(1)  Statutory Authorization and Standards for Eviction   §18.15

(2)  Federal Standards Upheld in Rucker   §18.16

(3)  When State Law Standards Apply   §18.16A

(4)  Aftermath of Rucker; Unresolved Issues   §18.17

(5)  Permission to Obtain Criminal Records, Drug Treatment Information   §18.17A

c.   Exception: Victims of Domestic Violence Protected   §18.17B

3.   Violation of Program Regulations   §18.18

4.   Examples of Improper Grounds for Evicting Tenant   §18.19

E.   Defending Evictions

1.   Project Owner’s Abuse of Power   §18.20

2.   Defensive Strategies in PHA Evictions   §18.20A

                     3.   Bankruptcy Discharge of Delinquent Rent in Public or Subsidized Housing   §18.20B

V.    EVICTION PROCEDURES: NOTICE AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING OR MEETING   §18.21

A.   Notice Requirements   §18.22

B.   Pretermination Grievance Hearing or Meeting   §18.23

C.   Notice and Hearing Required Before Forfeiture Under Federal Antidrug Statute   §18.24

               D.   Relief From Forfeiture   §18.25

VI.    DAMAGES MAY BE AWARDED FOR WRONGFUL EVICTION FROM FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING   §18.26

       VII.    ENJOINING EVICTIONS FROM FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING   §18.27

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19

Special Considerations Governing Evictions in Commercial Tenancies

Myron Moskovitz
Clifford R. Horner

I.    OVERVIEW OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER IN COMMERCIAL TENANCIES   §19.1

II.    THREE-DAY NOTICE TO PAY RENT OR QUIT

A.   Lease Provisions May Affect Eviction Procedures   §19.2

B.   Statutory Requirements

1.   Estimated Rent (CCP §1161.1)   §19.3

2.   When Rent Is Not Estimated   §19.4

3.   Service Requirements   §19.5

4.   Landlord’s Acceptance of Partial Tender of Rent   §19.6

III.    THREE-DAY NOTICE FOR VIOLATION OF COVENANT OTHER THAN PAYMENT OF RENT   §19.7

A.   Covenants Restricting Assignments

1.   Common Law Rules   §19.8

2.   Statutory Law   §19.9

B.   Covenants Regarding Tenant Improvements   §19.9A

C.   Covenants Restricting Change in Use   §19.10

IV.    TERMINATION NOTICES FOLLOWING FORECLOSURE   §19.10A

V.    TERMINATION UNDER EXPRESS LEASE PROVISIONS   §19.10B

VI.    DEFENDING EVICTION BY ASSERTING BREACH OF LEASE BY LANDLORD

A.   Covenant to Repair; Implied Warranty of Habitability

1.   Dependent Versus Independent Covenants   §19.11

2.   Argument Favoring Adoption of Dependent Covenant Doctrine in Commercial Leases   §19.12

a.   Minimize Litigation   §19.13

b.   Eliminate Unfair Burdens on Tenant   §19.14

c.   Protect Tenant’s Right to Pursue Livelihood   §19.15

d.   No Impact on Summary Nature of Unlawful Detainer   §19.16

e.   Out-of-State Decisions Favor Interdependent Covenants   §19.17

3.   Effect of Toxic Mold Legislation   §19.17A

B.   Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment   §19.18

C.   Other Contractual Defenses   §19.18A

D.   Implied Warranty of Fitness   §19.19

E.   Implied Covenant of Good Faith   §19.20

1.   Duty to Maintain Third Party Leases   §19.21

2.   Sublessor Required to Exercise Option to Extend Master Lease   §19.22

3.   “No Compete” Covenant Applied to Expansion of Shopping Center   §19.23

4.   Good Faith Covenant Applied in Favor of Landlord   §19.24

VII.    NONCONTRACTUAL DEFENSES TO COMMERCIAL EVICTION ACTIONS

A.   Retaliatory Eviction   §19.25

B.   Good Cause to Terminate Petroleum Distributorship   §19.26

C.   Equitable Defenses   §19.27

VIII.    LANDLORD’S RIGHT OF ENTRY PENDING EVICTION   §19.28

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20

Effect of Sale of Property on Unlawful Detainer Proceedings

I.    EFFECT OF SALE OF PROPERTY ON UNLAWFUL DETAINER   §20.1

A.   Sale Before Eviction Action Is Begun   §20.2

B.   Sale After Eviction Action Has Begun   §20.3

II.    EVICTING AFTER SALE UNDER CCP §1161a   §20.4

A.   Use of 30-Day Notice on Residential Owner’s Tenant or 60-Day or 90-Day Notice After Foreclosure   §20.5

1.   When 60-Day Notice Applies   §20.6

2.   Additional Preforeclosure Notice of Sale   §20.7

3.   Postponing Sale of Multifamily Residential Buildings   §20.7A

4.   When 90-Day Notice Applies   §20.8

B.   Litigating Title in Unlawful Detainer Action   §20.9

C.   Effect of Local Eviction Control Ordinances   §20.10

D.   Effect of Section 8 Eviction Controls   §20.11

E.   Postforeclosure Bank Eviction Policies   §20.12

F.   Defending Postforeclosure Evictions: Priority of Title, Title Dispute, Improper Foreclosure, or Improper Notice Following Foreclosure   §20.13

III.    UTILITY CUTOFFS   §20.14

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21

Effect of Filing Bankruptcy on Proceedings in Unlawful Detainer

I.    EFFECT OF TENANT FILING BANKRUPTCY

A.   Automatic Stay on Evictions   §21.1

B.   Exceptions to Stay for Residential Tenancies

1.   After Entry of Judgment for Eviction   §21.1A

2.   When Eviction Based on Endangerment of Property or Illegal Use of Controlled Substance   §21.1B

C.   Significant Changes Under 2005 Act   §21.1C

II.    LANDLORD MAY SEEK RELIEF FROM AUTOMATIC STAY   §21.2

III.    PENALTY FOR IMPROPER FILING OF BANKRUPTCY   §21.3

IV.    LEASE CLAUSES PURPORTING TO TERMINATE LEASE ON FILING OF BANKRUPTCY   §21.4

V.    TERMINATION OF UTILITIES AND OTHER SERVICES   §21.5

VI.    ASSUMPTION OF LEASE BY TRUSTEE   §21.6

VII.    SECURITY DEPOSITS   §21.7

VIII.    DISADVANTAGES TO TENANT OF FILING FOR BANKRUPTCY   §21.8

IX.    FILING PETITION IN BANKRUPTCY AS TACTIC IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION   §21.9

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22

Summary Judgment

I.    PURPOSE OF MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT   §22.1

II.    TIMING OF MOTION   §22.2

III.    BURDEN OF PROOF   §22.2A

IV.    FACTUAL BASES FOR TENANT’S MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT   §22.3

V.    MOVING PARTY’S SUPPORTING PAPERS   §22.4

VI.    OPPOSING PARTY’S COUNTERDECLARATIONS; ORDERS   §22.5

VII.    SUMMARY ADJUDICATION OF ISSUES   §22.6

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23

Discovery

I.    PURPOSES OF DISCOVERY   §23.1

II.    STATUTORY METHODS OF DISCOVERY   §23.2

III.    AVAILABILITY OF DISCOVERY IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER   §23.3

IV.    DEFENSE STRATEGY SHOULD INCLUDE PLAN FOR DISCOVERY   §23.4

V.    FORMAL AND INFORMAL DISCOVERY METHODS   §23.5

VI.    FORMULATING A DISCOVERY PLAN

A.   When to Make and Implement Plan   §23.6

B.   Coordinating Various Discovery Techniques   §23.7

C.   Timeline for Initiating Tenant Discovery Directed to Landlord   §23.8

D.   Actions to Take if Discovery Cannot Be Completed Before Trial Date   §23.9

VII.    PURSUING DISCOVERY BEFORE ACTION FILED   §23.10

A.   Methods of Discovery Available Before Action Is Filed   §23.11

B.   Procedure for Pursuing Discovery Before Action Is Filed   §23.12

C.   Usefulness of Pursuing Discovery Before Action Is Filed   §23.13

VIII.    DISCOVERY AFTER SUMMONS AND COMPLAINT ARE SERVED   §23.14

A.   Time Limits on Responding to Discovery Requests   §23.15

B.   Preventing Setting of Trial Date Before Discovery Is Complete   §23.16

C.   Petitioning for Writ of Mandate if Court Refuses to Extend Trial Date   §23.17

IX.    METHODS OF DISCOVERY   §23.18

A.   Oral Depositions   §23.19

1.   Usefulness of Depositions   §23.20

2.   Expense of Depositions   §23.21

3.   Procedure for Oral Depositions

a.   When Deposition May Be Taken   §23.22

b.   Setting Depositions of Parties   §23.23

c.   Setting Depositions of Nonparties   §23.24

d.   Witness and Mileage Fees   §23.25

e.   Procedures at Deposition   §23.26

f.   Inspection of Documents at Deposition   §23.27

g.   Reviewing, Correcting, and Approving Deposition   §23.28

B.   Written Interrogatories   §23.29

1.   Usefulness of Written Interrogatories   §23.30

2.   Disadvantages of Written Interrogatories   §23.31

3.   Limit on Number of Interrogatories That May Be Propounded   §23.32

4.   Form: Declaration for Additional Discovery   §23.33

5.   Procedure for Propounding Written Interrogatories   §23.34

C.   Pretrial Demand for Production of Documents or Inspection   §23.35

1.   Usefulness of Demand for Production   §23.36

2.   Introduction Into Evidence of Documents Produced   §23.37

3.   Tactical Considerations in Requesting Production   §23.38

4.   Protective Orders Against Request for Production   §23.39

D.   Requests for Admissions   §23.40

1.   Usefulness of Requests for Admissions   §23.41

2.   Procedure for Requests for Admissions   §23.42

3.   Form: Declaration in Support of Request for Additional Admissions   §23.43

4.   Effect of Failure to Respond to Request for Admissions   §23.44

5.   Effect of Failure to Admit Fact Later Found True   §23.45

6.   Requests for Admissions May Not Be Combined With Other Discovery Requests   §23.46

7.   Effect of Admission Made in Response to Request   §23.47

8.   Admissions and Responses Are Not Filed But Retained by Parties   §23.48

X.    SANCTIONS FOR REFUSAL TO MAKE DISCOVERY   §23.49

A.   Categories of Sanctions That May Be Imposed   §23.50

B.   What Constitutes Misuse of Discovery Process   §23.51

C.   Specific Sanctions That Court May Impose   §23.52

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24

Rights of Occupants Not Named in Lease

I.    OCCUPANTS WHO ARE NOT NAMED IN LEASE   §24.1

II.    PREJUDGMENT CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION   §24.2

A.   Service of Prejudgment Claim to Right to Possession Form

1.   Service by Marshal, Sheriff, or Process Server   §24.3

2.   Time of Service   §24.4

3.   Service on Occupants Other Than Tenant or Subtenant   §24.5

B.   Effect of Proper Service by Landlord of Prejudgment Claim Form   §24.6

C.   Effect of Inadequate Service by Landlord of Prejudgment Claim Form   §24.7

D.   Judicial Council Form CP10.5: Prejudgment Claim of Right to Possession   §24.8

III.    POSTJUDGMENT CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION   §24.9

A.   Removal of Occupant by Sheriff or Marshal   §24.10

B.   Procedure by Occupant in Making Postjudgment Claim of Right to Possession   §24.11

C.   Judicial Council Form CP10: Claim of Right to Possession and Notice of Hearing   §24.12

IV.    HEARING ON CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION   §24.13

V.    PROCEDURE AT HEARING ON CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION   §24.14

VI.    PROCEEDING WITH ENFORCEMENT OF WRIT OF POSSESSION   §24.15

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25

Trial

I.    SETTING CASE FOR TRIAL

A.   Request and Counter-Request to Set Trial   §25.1

B.   Setting Date for Trial   §25.2

C.   Effects of Local Practices   §25.3

1.   Trial by Temporary Judge   §25.4

2.   Procedure After Trial Date Is Set   §25.5

D.   Resetting Trial Date   §25.6

1.   Procedure If Parties Do Not Agree on New Trial Date   §25.7

2.   Determining Whether Moving Party Has Shown Good Cause   §25.8

3.   Determining Whether There Is Reasonable Probability Plaintiff Will Prevail at Trial   §25.9

4.   Determining Damages Landlord Might Suffer   §25.10

5.   Reduction of Damages Based on Diminution of Value or Setoff   §25.11

6.   Order to Deposit Potential Damages   §25.12

7.   Advancing Trial Date on Tenant’s Failure to Make Deposit   §25.13

8.   Costs of Escrow Recoverable by Prevailing Party   §25.14

9.   Distribution of Funds Held in Escrow After Trial   §25.15

II.    IF TENANT VACATES PREMISES BEFORE TRIAL   §25.16

III.    PRETRIAL CONFERENCE   §25.17

IV.    RIGHT TO JURY TRIAL   §25.18

A.   Jury Instructions   §25.19

B.   Waiver of Jury Trial

1.   Bases for Waiver   §25.20

2.   Requesting Jury Trial After Waiver   §25.21

3.   Tenant’s Right to Jury Trial on Equitable Issues   §25.22

a.   Examples of Legal Issues   §25.23

b.   Examples of Equitable Defenses   §25.24

C.   Jury Verdicts

1.   General and Special Verdicts   §25.24A

2.   Judgment Based on Jury Verdict   §25.24B

V.    DISQUALIFYING JUDGE   §25.25

A.   Challenge for Cause (CCP §170.1)   §25.26

1.   Conditions That May Not Be Used as Grounds to Disqualify Judge   §25.27

2.   Bias or Prejudice   §25.28

3.   Procedure for Disqualification   §25.29

B.   Peremptory Challenges (CCP §170.6)

1.   Grounds for Challenge   §25.30

2.   Procedure for Peremptory Challenges   §25.31

3.   Time Limits for Moving to Challenge   §25.32

4.   Effect of Challenge   §25.33

C.   Tactical Considerations   §25.34

VI.    SUBPOENAS

A.   Subpoenas for Witnesses   §25.35

B.   Subpoena Not Necessary to Require Attendance of Party or Agent   §25.36

C.   Service of Subpoena   §25.37

               D.   Fees for Appearing in Court in Response to Subpoena   §25.38

E.   Subpoena Duces Tecum (Books and Papers)   §25.39

1.   Service of Subpoena Duces Tecum; Affidavit of Good Cause Necessary   §25.40

2.   Fees for Appearing in Court in Response to Subpoena Duces Tecum   §25.41

3.   Subpoena Duces Tecum Not Necessary for Party   §25.42

F.   Penalties for Disobeying Subpoena   §25.43

VII.    EVIDENCE PROBLEMS

A.   Prima Facie Case; Nonsuit   §25.44

B.   Proof of Tenant’s Possession   §25.45

C.   Proof of Service of Notice   §25.46

D.   Proof of Rent Due   §25.47

E.   Judicial Notice   §25.48

F.   Use of Books and Records   §25.49

G.   Laying Foundation for Admission of Business Record   §25.50

H.   Proof of Damages   §25.51

I.   Waiver of Rent During Trial   §25.52

J.   Proving Retaliatory Eviction   §25.53

1.   Strength of Retaliatory Motive   §25.54

2.   Evidence of “Just Cause” to Evict   §25.55

3.   Evidence of Retaliatory Motive

a.   Evidence Inferred by Conduct   §25.56

b.   Indirect Evidence   §25.57

K.   Fees for Appointment of Interpreter   §25.58

VIII.    TRIAL BRIEFS   §25.59

IX.    CONTINUANCES   §25.60

A.   Grounds for Continuance   §25.61

1.   Unavailability of Counsel   §25.62

2.   Unavailability of Party   §25.63

3.   Unavailability of Witness   §25.64

4.   Other Statutory Grounds for Granting Continuance   §25.65

5.   Unexpected Testimony   §25.66

B.   Procedure for Obtaining Continuance   §25.67

1.   Good Cause Required   §25.67A

2.   Stipulation for Continuance   §25.67B

3.   Conditions for Obtaining Continuance   §25.67C

4.   Appealability of Order Denying Continuance   §25.67D

X.    DEFAULTS AT TRIAL   §25.67E

XI.    CONFORMING PLEADINGS TO PROOF

A.   General Law for Ordinary Civil Actions   §25.68

B.   Special Law for Unlawful Detainer Complaints

1.   Amendment Based on Trial Evidence   §25.68A

2.   Amendments Before Trial Excluded   §25.68B

3.   Permissible Scope of Amendments   §25.68C

C.   Amended Versus Supplemental Complaint   §25.68D

XII.    STATEMENT OF DECISION   §25.69

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26

Judgment

I.    JUDGMENTS IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS   §26.1

         II.    CONDITIONING JUDGMENT FOR TENANT ON PAYMENT OF RENT   §26.2

        III.    TENANT MUST BE IN POSSESSION   §26.3

        IV.    WHAT COURT CAN AWARD

A.   Judgment Can Grant Possession of Premises   §26.4

               B.   “Rent” and “Damages”   §26.5

                     1.   Determining Whether Amount Due Is Rent or Damages; Period Covered   §26.6

                     2.   Rent   §26.7

                     3.   Apportionment of Rent   §26.8

                     4.   Damages

a.   Damages Occurring Before Holdover   §26.9

                           b.   Reasonable Rental Value During Holdover   §26.10

                           c.   Damages Against Subtenant   §26.11

                           d.   Damages After Judgment   §26.12

                           e.   Statutory Damages for Malicious Holdover   §26.13

               C.   Forfeiture   §26.14

               D.   Notice May Specify Election to Declare Forfeiture   §26.15

               E.   Interest May Be Awarded   §26.16

               F.   Costs May Be Awarded   §26.17

               G.   Attorney Fees Authorized by Lease or Statute   §26.18

                     1.   Reciprocity of Attorney Fee Provision   §26.19

                     2.   Award of Fees Under Invalid Rental Agreement   §26.20

                     3.   Prevailing Party   §26.21

                     4.   Entitlement to Attorney Fees on Tender and Deposit of Amount Owed   §26.22

                     5.   Prevailing Party When Tenant Raises Habitability as Affirmative Defense   §26.23

                     6.   Size of Fee Award; Local Fee Schedules   §26.24

                     7.   Fees Awardable After Settlement Offer Rejected   §26.25

8.   Fees Awardable Beyond Court’s Jurisdictional Limit   §26.26

9.   Fees Awardable to Public Interest Attorneys   §26.27

10.   Fees Awardable for All Issues Argued   §26.28

11.   Attorney Fees Payable to Party—Not to Attorney   §26.29

12.   Attorney Fees Awardable as Sanctions Regardless of Lease Provision   §26.30

13.   Effect of Voluntary Dismissal   §26.31

14.   Fees Awardable for Enforcement of Right Important to Public Interest   §26.32

15.   Procedures for Requesting Fees   §26.33

16.   Related Statutes Providing for Award of Attorney Fees   §26.34

H.   Limitation on Award for Judgments in Municipal Court of Less Than $10,000   §26.35

I.   Witness Fees May Be Awarded   §26.36

J.   Costs of Execution of Judgment May Be Recovered   §26.37

V.    EFFECT OF JUDGMENT ON CONSUMER CREDIT REPORTING   §26.38

VI.    RES JUDICATA AND COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL EFFECT OF JUDGMENT   §26.38A

VII.    UNLAWFUL DETAINER JUDGMENT FORMS

A.   Form: Order for Judgment for Defendant Conditioned on Payment of Rent After Trial (Warranty of Habitability)   §26.39

B.   Form: Judgment—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD‑110)   §26.40

C.   Form: Judgment—Unlawful Detainer Attachment (Judicial Council Form UD‑110S)   §26.41

D.   Form: Stipulation for Entry of Judgment (Unlawful Detainer) (Judicial Council Form UD‑115)   §26.42

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27

Posttrial Motions

I.    POSTTRIAL MOTIONS COVERED   §27.1

II.    FIVE-DAY STATUTORY STAY OF EXECUTION (FOR APPLICATION FOR RESTORATION OF POSSESSION)   §27.2

III.    DISCRETIONARY STAY OF EXECUTION

A.   Pending Hearing on Posttrial Motions   §27.3

B.   Temporary Stay Based on Hardship   §27.4

C.   Form: Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution   §27.5

D.   Form: Memorandum in Support of Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution   §27.6

IV.    MOTION FOR JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING VERDICT   §27.7

A.   Grounds for Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict   §27.8

B.   Procedure for Making Notice of Motion   §27.9

C.   Time of Ruling on Motion   §27.10

D.   Form: Notice of Motion for Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict   §27.11

E.   Form: Order Granting or Denying Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict   §27.12

V.    MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL   §27.13

A.   Grounds for Motion for New Trial   §27.14

B.   Court’s Power to Vacate or Modify Judgment   §27.15

C.   Notice of Motion for New Trial   §27.16

D.   Time for Making Motion for New Trial   §27.17

E.   Form: Notice of Motion for New Trial   §27.18

F.   Form: Declaration in Support of Notice of Motion for New Trial   §27.19

G.   Hearing on Motion   §27.20

H.   Court’s Time to Rule on Motion   §27.21

VI.    MOTION TO SET ASIDE AND VACATE JUDGMENT   §27.22

A.   Notice of Motion   §27.23

B.   Time for Making Motion   §27.24

C.   Form: Notice of Motion to Vacate Judgment and Enter Different Judgment   §27.25

D.   Form: Order Granting Motion to Vacate Judgment and Enter Different Judgment (CCP §663)   §27.26

VI.    APPLICATION FOR RELIEF FROM FORFEITURE   §27.27

A.   Grounds for Relief From Forfeiture   §27.28

B.   Rent Must Be Paid and Other Covenants Performed   §27.29

C.   Procedure for Seeking Relief From Forfeiture   §27.30

D.   Form: Application for Relief From Forfeiture   §27.31

E.   Effect of Grant or Denial of Relief   §27.32

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28

Enforcement of Judgment—Removing Tenant and Tenant’s Belongings

I.    REMOVING TENANT   §28.1

A.   Contents of Writ   §28.2

B.   Sending Scare Notice to Tenant After Judgment Is Entered   §28.3

C.   Procedures for Serving and Enforcing Writ of Possession   §28.4

D.   Sheriff Must Evict if Tenant Does Not Vacate Within 5 Days   §28.5

E.   Effect of Failure by Sheriff to Act by Return Date of Writ   §28.6

F.   Judicial Council Form EJ‑130: Writ of Possession of Real Property   §28.7

II.    SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT PRACTICES AND CHARGES   §28.8

III.    DISPOSITION OF TENANT’S PERSONAL PROPERTY

A.   Personal Property Not Removed by Tenant   §28.9

B.   Recovery of Personal Property After Eviction   §28.10

C.   Treating Tenant’s Personal Property as Lost or Abandoned   §28.11

D.   Claim by Tenant for Personal Property (CC §1965)   §28.12

E.   Advantages and Disadvantages of Requesting Surrender   §28.13

F.   Form: Claim for Return of Personal Property Under CC §1965   §28.14

IV.    DISPOSITION OF LOST PROPERTY   §28.15

V.    DISPOSITION OF PROPERTY ABANDONED BY TENANT   §28.16

A.   Landlord Must Store Abandoned Property in Safe Place   §28.17

B.   Notice Requirements for Disposal of Abandoned Property   §28.18

C.   Release of Property to Owner on Payment of Costs   §28.19

D.   Storage Costs   §28.20

E.   Sale of Unclaimed Property; Liability of Landlord   §28.21

VI.    EXECUTION ON TENANT’S PERSONAL PROPERTY IN LANDLORD’S POSSESSION   §28.22

VII.    SETTING ASIDE IMPROPER EXECUTION SALE   §28.23

VIII.    SUPPLEMENTAL COST BILL   §28.24

IX.    MOTION TO QUASH OR RECALL WRIT OF EXECUTION   §28.25

X.    CLAIM OF EXEMPTION   §28.26

A.   Judicial Council Form EJ‑160: Claim of Exemption   §28.27

B.   Hearing on Objections to Claim of Exemption   §28.28

C.   Judgment on Claim of Exemption   §28.29

XI.    WAGE GARNISHMENTS   §28.30

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29

Appeals

I.    APPEAL PROCEDURES   §29.1

A.   Limited Civil Cases: Timeline for Action After Entry of Judgment   §29.2

B.   Unlimited Civil Cases: Timeline for Action After Entry of Judgment   §29.3

II.    APPEALABLE JUDGMENTS AND ORDERS   §29.4

III.    VACATING PREMISES DOES NOT MOOT TENANT’S APPEAL   §29.5

IV.    FRIVOLOUS APPEALS   §29.6

V.    OBTAINING IMMEDIATE TEMPORARY STAY OF ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENT   §29.7

VI.    STAY PENDING APPEAL   §29.8

A.   Evaluating Need for Stay Pending Appeal   §29.9

B.   Proper Judge   §29.10

C.   Grounds on Which Stay May Be Granted   §29.11

VII.    UNDERTAKING ON APPEAL   §29.12

VIII.    FORM: WAIVER OF SECURITY   §29.13

IX.    FORM: NOTICE OF MOTION FOR STAY   §29.14

X.    REVIEW OF DENIAL OF STAY   §29.15

XI.    CLEAR ABUSE OF DISCRETION MUST BE SHOWN   §29.16

XII.    SCOPE OF TRIAL COURT JURISDICTION PENDING APPEAL   §29.17

XIII.    EVALUATING WHETHER TO APPEAL   §29.18

XIV.    SUMMARY OF APPELLATE PROCEDURE

A.   Applicable Rules   §29.19

B.   Appeals From Limited Civil Cases   §29.20

C.   Appeals From Other Superior Court Actions   §29.21

D.   Standard of Review   §29.22

E.   Initiating Appeal

1.   Notice of Appeal   §29.23

2.   Form: Notice of Appeal   §29.24

3.   Form: Notice of Appeal/Cross-Appeal (Limited Civil Case) (Judicial Council Form APP-102)   §29.25

4.   Form: Notice Designating Record on Appeal (Limited Civil Case) (Judicial Council Form APP-103)   §29.26

5.   Filing Deadlines Applicable to Appeals From Limited Civil Cases   §29.27

6.   Filing Deadlines Applicable to Other Superior Court Judgments   §29.28

7.   Record on Appeal   §29.29

a.   Electronic Recording or Agreed Statement   §29.30

b.   Form: Proposed Statement on Appeal (Limited Civil Case) (Judicial Council Form APP-104)   §29.31

c.   Requesting Reporter’s Transcript   §29.32

F.   Filing Briefs in Appellate Division of Superior Court   §29.33

G.   Filing Briefs in Court of Appeal   §29.34

H.   Purpose of Oral Argument   §29.35

I.   Decision on Appeal and Rehearing   §29.36

J.   Relief for Tenant After Reversal   §29.37

K.   Costs and Attorney Fees on Appeal   §29.38

L.   Abandonment of Appeal   §29.39

M.   Transfer to District Court of Appeal

1.   Transfer of Appeal of Limited Civil Case From Superior Court to Court of Appeal   §29.40

2.   When Transfer Is Denied by District Court   §29.41

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30

Civil Writs

I.    CIVIL WRITS IN GENERAL    §30.1

II.    NATURE AND SCOPE OF WRIT    §30.2

A.   Conditions Under Which Writ of Mandate Will Issue    §30.3

B.   Alternative and Peremptory Writs of Mandate    §30.4

C.   Factors in Deciding Whether to Seek Writ    §30.5

III.    OBTAINING A STAY OF EXECUTION PENDING APPEAL OR DECISION ON PETITION FOR WRIT OF MANDATE   §30.6

IV.    PERSUADING COURT THAT WRIT SHOULD BE GRANTED    §30.7

A.   Inadequacy of Other Remedy Must Be Shown    §30.8

B.   No Direct Appeal    §30.9

C.   Common Situations in Which Relief by Writ Is Sought    §30.10

D.   Direct Appeal Possible    §30.11

V.    PROCEDURE IN OBTAINING WRIT

A.   Relief Must First Be Sought in Lower Court    §30.12

B.   Court in Which Writ Petition Must Be Filed    §30.13

C.   Applicable Statutes and Rules of Court    §30.14

D.   Names of Parties    §30.15

E.   Time Limitation    §30.16

F.   Procedures in Superior Court    §30.17

G.   Pleadings in Mandamus Proceeding    §30.18

1.   Contents of Petition    §30.19

2.   Common Errors in Petitions for Writ    §30.20

3.   Opposition to Issuance of Writ    §30.21

H.   Hearing    §30.22

I.   Issuance of Peremptory Writ    §30.23

J.   Mootness    §30.24

K.   Damages and Costs    §30.25

VI.    REVIEW OF SUPERIOR COURT ACTION ON WRIT    §30.26

VII.    APPEAL FROM DISTRICT COURT OF APPEAL DECISION TO SUPREME COURT    §30.27

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31

Return of Security Deposit and Disposition of Last Month’s Rent

I.    TENANT’S RIGHTS IN SECURITY DEPOSIT AND LAST MONTH’S RENT    §31.1

II.    PAYMENTS TO LANDLORD ON SIGNING OF LEASE THAT ARE NOT CONSIDERED “SECURITY”    §31.2

III.    SECURITY “DISGUISED” AS ADVANCE RENT    §31.3

IV.    EFFECT OF DESIGNATION OF DEPOSIT AS “LAST MONTH’S RENT” RATHER THAN “SECURITY DEPOSIT”    §31.4

V.    LIMITATIONS ON AMOUNT OF SECURITY THAT MAY BE REQUIRED    §31.5

VI.    TENANT’S CLAIM TO SECURITY HAS PRIORITY OVER THAT OF LANDLORD’S CREDITORS    §31.6

VII.    SECURITY MAY NOT BE NONREFUNDABLE    §31.7

VIII.    PROVING AMOUNT OF SECURITY DEPOSIT    §31.8

IX.    LIMITS ON LANDLORD’S USE OF SECURITY DEPOSIT    §31.9

X.    LANDLORD’S DUTY TO RETURN DEPOSIT    §31.10

A.   Tenant’s Right to Request Inspection of Premises and Cure Deficiencies; Use of Deposit    §31.10A

B.   Tenant’s Right to Refund of Security Deposit Balance and Accounting    §31.10B

XI.    LANDLORD’S SALE OR OTHER TRANSFER OF PREMISES    §31.11

XII.    INTEREST ON SECURITY DEPOSIT    §31.12

XIII.    DAMAGES FOR LANDLORD’S IMPROPER RETENTION OF DEPOSIT    §31.13

XIV.    EFFECT ON UNLAWFUL DETAINER    §31.14

 

 

 

Attacking the Sale or Defending Possession in Unlawful Detainer Proceedings

1 Feb

Generally, the purchaser at a trustee’s sale may institute an unlawful detainer action to obtain possession if the “property has been duly sold in accordance with Section 2924 of the Civil Code” and if “title under the sale has been duly perfected.” [Code of Civ. Proc. § 1161a(b) (3). ] A transferee of the purchaser also has standing to use the unlawful detainer process. [See Evans v. Superior Court (1977) 67 Cal.App.3d 162, 169-70; 136 Cal.Rptr. 596.] The action may be brought after the failure to vacate following the service of a three-day notice to quit. [Code of Civ. Proc. § 116la(b).] However, unlawful detainer proceedings may be used against a tenant or subtenant only after the service of notice to quit at least as long as the periodic tenancy but not exceeding 30 days. [Code Civ. Pro. § 1161a(c).] The remedy is cumulative to common law actions such as ejectment which may be brought to obtain possession. [See Duckett v. Adolph Wexler Bldg. & Fin. Corp. (1935) 2 Cal.2d 263, 265-66; 40 P.2d 506; Mutual Bldo. & Loan Assn. v. Corum (1934) 3 Cal.App.2d 56, 58; 38 P.2d 793.] With very rare exceptions, the purchaser will invoke summary unlawful detainer proceedings rather than other proceedings to gain possession.
However, the purchaser is precluded from invoking unlawful detainer if a local ordinance, such as a rent control law, does not permit eviction after foreclosure. [See Gross v. Superior Court (1985) 171 Cal.App.3d 265; 217 Cal.Rptr. 284.] The purchaser may also be bound to rent ceilings. [See People v. Little (1983) 141 Cal.App.3d Supp. 14; 192 Cal.Rptr. 619.]
The courts have charted inconsistent paths in determining what defenses may be raised in unlawful detainer proceedings and to what extent the trustor may be able to attack the purchaser’s title. In the early cases, the courts concluded that the purchaser had the burden of proving that the purchaser acquired the property in the manner expressed in the unlawful detainer statute; i.e., the property was duly sold and the purchaser duly perfected title. No other questions of title could be litigated. [See e.g., Nineteenth Realty Co. v. Diacrs (1933) 134 Cal.App. 278, 288-89; 25 P.2d 522; Hewitt v. Justice’s Court (1933) 131 Cal.App. 439, 443; 21 P.2d 641.]

This rule was adopted by the Supreme Court in Cheney v. Trauzettel (1937) 9 Cal.2d 158; 69 P.2d 832. The Supreme Court held that:
… in the summary proceeding in unlawful detainer the right to possession alone was involved, and the broad question of title could not be raised and litigated by cross-complaint or affirmative defense. [Citations omitted.] It is true that where the purchaser at a trustee’s sale proceeds under section 1161a of the Code of Civil Procedure he must prove his acquisition of title by purchase at the sale; but it is only to this limited extent, as provided by statute, that the title may be litigated in such a proceeding. [Citations omitted.] . . . the plaintiff need only prove a sale in compliance with the statute and deed of trust, followed by purchase at such sale, and the defendant may raise objections only on that phase of the issue of title. Matters affecting the validity of the trust deed or primary obligation itself, or other basic defects in the plaintiff’s title, are neither properly raised in this summary proceeding for possession, nor are they concluded by the judgment. (Id. at 159-60.)
Accordingly, in numerous cases trustors have been forbidden from defending against the unlawful detainer on grounds other than showing that the sale was not conducted pursuant to Civil Code § 2924. [See e.g., California Livestock Production Credit Assn. v. Sutfin, supra, 165 Cal.App.3d 136, 140 n.2; Evans v. Superior Court, supra, 67 Cal.App.3d 162, 170-71; MCA. Inc. v. Universal Diversified Enterprises Corp. (1972) 27 Cal.App.3d 170, 176-77; 103 Cal.Rptr. 522; Cruce v. Stein, supra, 146 Cal.App.2d 688, 692; Abrahamer v. Parks, supra, 141 Cal.App.2d 82, 84; Hiaoins v. Covne (1946) 75 Cal.App.2d 69, 72-73, 75; 170 P.2d 25; Delov v. Ono (1937) 22 Cal.App.2d 301, 303; 70 P.2d 960.]
Other courts, on the other hand, have considered defenses extrinsic to compliance with statutory foreclosure procedure in determining unlawful detainer matters. In Seidell v. Anglo-California Trust Co. (1942) 55 Cal.App.2d 913, 921; 132 P.2d 12, the Court of Appeal construed Cheney to prohibit only equitable but not legal defenses. Therefore, the Court thought that lack of consideration and other issues going to the validity of the note and the trust deed were proper defenses. (Id. at 922.) Other cases have permitted the unlawful detainer defenses whether or not the grounds were technically legal or equitable. [See e.g., Kartheiser v. Superior Court (1959) 174 Cal.App.2d 617, 621; 345 P.2d 135 (beneficiary’s waiver of default); Freeze v. Salot, supra, 122 Cal.App.2d 561; (no default); Kessler v. Bridge (1958) 161 Cal.App.2d Supp. 837; 327 P.2d 241 (rescission, lack of delivery); Altman v. McCollum. supra, 107 Cal.App.2d Supp. 847; (estoppel to assert default).]
The issue of what defenses can or should be raised also significantly affects the application of the res judicata doctrine to any action by the trustor after the unlawful detainer to challenge the trustee’s sale. Cases, proceeding from Seidell, which hold that potential defenses are far ranging, have also held that issues which were, or might have been, determined in the unlawful detainer proceeding are barred by res judicata in subsequent proceedings. [See Freeze v. Salot. supra, 122 Cal.App.2d 561, 565-66; Bliss v. Security-First Nat. Bank (1947) 81 Cal.App.2d 50, 58; Seidell v. Analo-California Trust Co., supra, 55 Cal.App.2d 913.]
The Court of Appeal, however, ruled differently in Gonzales v. Gem Properties, Inc., supra, 37 Cal.App.3d 1029, 1036. The court recognized the extreme difficulty of conducting complicated defenses in the context of a summary proceeding; investigation and discovery procedures are limited, and the proceeding is too swift to afford sufficient time for preparation. Therefore, the court denied a res judicata effect to issues such as fraud.
The resolution of the problems raised by these cases appears in Vella v. Hudoins (1977) 20 Cal.3d 251; 142 Cal.Rptr. 414 and Asuncion v. Superior Court (1980) 108 Cal.App.3d 141; 166 Cal.Rptr.
306. In Vella, the Supreme Court held generally that only claims “bearing directly upon the right of immediate possession are permitted; consequently, a judgment in unlawful detainer usually has very limited res judicata effect and will not prevent one who is dispossessed from bringing a subsequent action to resolve questions of title [citations omitted], or to adjudicate other legal and equitable claims between the parties [citations omitted].” (20 Cal.3d at 255.) The purchaser, however, must show that the sale was regularly conducted and that the purchaser’s title was duly perfected. (Id.)
The court reaffirmed the holding in Cheney that claims dealing with the validity of the trust deed or the obligation or with other basic defects in the purchaser’s title should not be litigated in unlawful detainer proceedings, and that determination made regarding such claims should not be given res judicata effect. (Id. at 257.) Defenses which need not be raised may nonetheless be considered if there is no objection. [See Stephens, Partain & Cunningham v. Hollis, supra, 196 Cal.App.3d 948, 953.] Res judicata will apply only to defenses, including those ordinarily not cognizable but raised without objection, if there is a fair opportunity to litigate, rvella v. Hudgins, supra, 20 Cal.3d 251, 256-57.] Since complex claims, such as for fraud, can very rarely be fairly litigated in summary unlawful detainer proceedings, the trustor is not required to raise those issues as a defense. (Id.at 258.)
Although not required and ordinarily not allowed to litigate critical issues involving the obligation, the trust deed, and title, the homeowner-trustor is practically impelled to litigate these issues or be dispossessed since an unlawful detainer hearing will certainly precede a trial on a quiet title action. [See Code of Civ. Proc. § 1179a; Kartheiser v. Superior Court, supra, 174 Cal.App.2d 617, 621-23.] The California Supreme Court, citing Justice Douglas, aptly observed:
. . . the home, even though it be in the slums, is where man’s roots are. To put him into the street . . . deprives the tenant of a fundamental right without any real opportunity to defend. Then he loses the essence of the controversy, being given only empty promises that somehow, somewhere, someone may allow him to litigate the basic question in the case. S. P. Growers Assn. v. Rodriguez (1976) 17 Cal.3d 719, 730; 131 Cal.Rptr. 761.
Accordingly, the Court of Appeal held in Asuncion, supra, that “homeowners cannot be evicted, consistent with due process guaranties, without being permitted to raise the affirmative defenses which if proved would maintain their possession and ownership.” (108 Cal.App.3d at 146.) Nonetheless, the Court was mindful that an unlawful detainer action was “not a suitable vehicle to try complicated ownership issues. …” [Id. at 144; see Mehr v. Superior Court (1983) 139 Cal.App.3d 1044, 1049; 189 Cal.Rptr. 138; Gonzales v. Gem Properties, Inc., supra, 37 Cal.App.3d 1029, 1036.] The Court thus prescribed the following procedure when the trustor had on file a superior court action contesting title: (a) the municipal court should transfer the unlawful detainer proceeding to the superior court because that action ultimately involves the issue of title which is beyond the municipal court’s jurisdiction; and (b) the superior court should stay the eviction action, subject to a bond if appropriate, until trial of the action dealing with title, or (c) the superior court should consolidate the actions. (Id. at 146-47.)
If the challenge to title is based on fraud in the acquisition of title, improper sales methods, or other improprieties that directly impeach the unlawful detainer plaintiff’s title or the procedures followed in the foreclosure sale, Asuncion and Mehr dictate that the unlawful detainer should be stayed. On the other hand, if the challenge to title is based on a claim unrelated to the specific property in question, such as a fraud not directly related to the obtaining of title to the property that is the subject of the unlawful detainer, the rule in Asuncion does not apply. [See Old National Financial Services, Inc. v. Seibert (1987) 194 Cal.App.3d 460, 464-67.]

Asuncion should also be distinguished from Mobil Oil Corp. v. Superior Court (1978) 79 Cal.App.3d 486; 145 Cal.Rptr. 17, which is frequently cited in opposition to the procedure authorized in Asuncion♦ In Mobil, the court ruled that statutory procedure accorded unlawful detainer proceedings precluded staying the unlawful detainer action until the tenant gas station operator could try his action alleging unfair practices in the termination of his franchise. (Id. at 494.) The Asuncion court noted some procedural distinctions: the commercial lessee did not seek a preliminary injunction and obtained a stay on apparently inadequate factual grounds, while the Asuncions had not yet had the opportunity to present facts on which a preliminary injunction might issue. (See 108 Cal.App.3d at 146 n. 1.)
In addition, the differences between the interests presented in commercial and residential transactions suggest that different considerations may apply to each. The courts have recognized a distinction between commercial and residential cases and have been more willing to allow affirmative defenses in residential cases. [See S. P. Growers Assn., supra, 17 Cal.3d 719, 730; 131 Cal.Rptr. 761; Custom Parking, Inc. v. Superior Court (1982) 138 Cal.App.3d 90, 96-100; 187 Cal.Rptr. 674; Schulman v. Vera (1980) 108 Cal.App.3d 552, 560-63; 166 Cal.Rptr. 620; Asuncion v. Superior Court, supra, 108 Cal.App.3d 141, 145, 146 n. 1; Mobil Oil Corp.v, Handlev (1976) 76 Cal.App.3d 956, 966;- 143 Cal.Rptr. 321; see generally, Union Oil Co. v. Chandler (1970) 4 Cal.App.3d 716, 725; 84 Cal.Rptr. 756.]
The commercial lessee may be able to establish its rights in an action apart from the unlawful detainer. The trustor, however, will lose possession of the trustor’s home. While the lessee’s loss is likely compensable in money, the loss of the home and the attendant adverse impact on the psychological well being of the residents and the family structure will not as easily be amenable to compensation. Moreover, the family cast out onto the streets may be unable to maintain an action which may come to trial years later. [See S. P. Growers Assn. v. Rodriguez, supra, 17 Cal.3d 719, 730.] In addition, the affirmative defenses alleged in the recent commercial lease cases have presented substantial and complex issues [see e.g., Mobil Oil Corp. v. Superior Court, supra, 79 Cal.App.3d 486, 495 (unfair business practice charge involving all Mobil service station operators); Onion Oil Co. v. Chandler, supra, 4 Cal.App.3d 716, 725-26 (antitrust violations)] and would likely consume more trial time than most trustee’ s sale cases.
Moreover, the court’s decision on whether to recognize various affirmative defenses in unlawful detainer proceedings results from a balancing of the public policies furthered by protecting the tenant or property owner from eviction against the state’s interest in the expediency of a summary proceeding. [See e.g., Barela v. Superior Court (1981) 30 Cal.3d 244, 250; 178 Cal.Rptr. 618; S. P. Growers Assn. v. Rodriguez, supra, 17 Cal.3d 719, 729-30; Custom Parking, Inc. v. Superior Court, supra, 138 Cal.App.3d 90.] There is a strong public policy supporting homeownership and the conservation of neighborhoods from destabilizing influences. [See discussion in Chapter III B 1 “Propriety of Injunctive Relief”.] These interests when coupled with the due process concerns mentioned in Asuncion militate for the hearing of affirmative defenses in accord with the procedure set forth in Asuncion.
As an alternative to an Asuncion motion prior to the hearing of the unlawful detainer action, the homeowner’s counsel could file a superior court action to challenge title and to restrain the purchasers from initiating or prosecuting an unlawful detainer. If the homeowner has lost the unlawful detainer, the injunction could be aimed at restraining the purchasers from enforcing the writ of possession or from taking possession of the premises.
Counsel should not direct the injunction against the municipal court or the sheriff or marshall since the superior court has no jurisdiction to enjoin a judicial proceeding or a public officer’s discharge of regular duties. [See e.g., Code of Civ. Proc. § 526.]
The courts have not ruled on whether traditional landlord-tenant defenses could ever be invoked in unlawful detainer,proceedings between the purchaser at the foreclosure sale and the person in possession. However, these defenses do not apply if the person in possession has no independent right to possession after the foreclosure. [See California Livestock Production Credit Assn. v. Sutfin. supra, 165 Cal.App.3d 136, 143.] In Sutfin, for example, the court held that a trustor could not invoke a retaliatory eviction defense because the trustor had no lease agreement giving the trustor a right to possession and the trustor’s only claim to possession derived from his title to the property which was lost at a valid foreclosure sale. (Id.)

Caltenantlaw’s List of Tenant Lawyers in California

9 Nov


Most landlord-tenant attorneys only represent the landlords. The following is a list of lawyers and legal agencies who help tenants in California.  The areas are arranged generally North to South. The red city names make scanning easier for you. The downloading of this list may take a minute, so please be patient.]  Visit the main website.

Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Northern California
Legal Services of Northern California
190 Reamer Street
Auburn, CA 95603
(530) 823-7560 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (530) 823-7560      end_of_the_skype_highlighting 

541 Normal Avenue; PO Box 3728
Chico, CA 95927
(530) 345-9493 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (530) 345-9493      end_of_the_skype_highlighting123 Third Street; PO Box 1017
Eureka, CA 95502
(707) 445-0866 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (707) 445-0866      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; (800) 972-0002 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800) 972-0002      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

807 S. Dora St.
Ukiah, CA 95482
(707) 462-1471 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (707) 462-1471      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

1370 West Street
Redding, CA 96001
(530) 241-3565 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (530) 241-3565      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; (800) 822-9687 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800) 822-9687      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

714 West Main Street #8
Nevada City, CA 95945
(530) 470-8562 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (530) 470-8562      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

515 12th Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
(916) 551-2150 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (916) 551-2150      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

 


[All locations]
 

[Redding only


Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
SF Bay
Michael W. Blacksburg
315 Noe Street
San Francisco, California 94114
(415) 861-9900 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (415) 861-9900      end_of_the_skype_highlighting  Facsimile: (415) 861-9908
David Rouda
285 12th Avenue, First Floor
San Francisco, CA  94118-2103
(415) 221-7683 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (415) 221-7683      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Dave Crow & Solvejg Rose
605 Market Street, Suite 400
San Francisco, CA 94105
(415)552-9060 FAX (415)222-9995
Rachel E. Shapiro
530 Divisadero, #203
San Francisco, CA 94117
415.621.5302 FAX 415.651.8712
Carol S. Gordon
P O Box 27056
San Francisco, CA 94127
(415)989-8444 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (415)989-8444      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Michael Bracamontes / Bracamontes & Vlasak APLC
220 Montgomery St #870
San Francisco, CA 94104
(415) 835-6777  FAX 415 835-6780
Richard Sax
448 Sebastopol Ave.
Santa Rosa, CA 95401
(707)525-1824 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (707)525-1824      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
J. Scott Weaver, Paul Wartelle, Christina Schreiber
369 Pine St. #506
San Francisco, CA 94104
(415) 693-0504; (FAX 415) 693-9102
Sally Morin
Law Offices of James M. Millar
100 Montgomery Street, #1600
San Francisco, CA 94104
(415)981-8100 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (415)981-8100      end_of_the_skype_highlighting ; FAX (415)981-9024
Mark Hooshmand/Hooshmand Law Group
654 Sacramento St. 3rd Floor
San Francisco, CA 94111
(415)835-5900 Fax (415)376-5897
Kenneth Greenstein /Steve McDonald
Greenstein & McDonald
300 Montgomery St, #1621
San Francisco. CA 94104
(415)773-1240 X304; FAX (415)773-1244
Larry Becker
819 Eddy St.
San Francisco, CA 94119
(415)771-6174
Richard Hurlburt
870 Market St. #315
San Francisco, CA 94102
(415)391-6496 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (415)391-6496      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Marylin Kalman
45 Polk St. 2d floor
San Francisco, CA 9410
(415)824-3250 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (415)824-3250      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Mary Jane Foran,  Cathy Mosbrucker
Mosbrucker & Foran
870 Market Street, Suite 313
San Francisco, CA 94102
(415) 398-9880 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (415) 398-9880      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
James Coy Driscoll
2740 Van Ness Avenue, Suite 300
San Francisco, CA 94109
(415) 673-6000; FAX (415) 673-6030
Robert DeVries
785 Market St #1150
San Francisco, CA 94103
(415)546-5100 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (415)546-5100      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Thomas Swihart
2039 Shattuck Ave. #308
Berkeley, CA 94704
(510) 843-2750; FAX (510)843-2766
Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Jeffery Carter
2041 Bancroft Way #207
Berkeley, CA 94704
(510) 548-4774  FAX (510)845-6419
East Bay Community Law Center
3130 Shattuck Avenue
Berkeley, California 94705
(510) 548-4040 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (510) 548-4040      end_of_the_skype_highlighting, FAX (510) 548-2566
Robert J. Evans
1736 Franklin Street, 10th Floor
Oakland CA 94612
510-238-4190 Fax 510-444-1704
Bay Area Legal Aid
1735 Telegraph Ave.
Oakland, CA 94612
(510) 663-4744 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (510) 663-4744      end_of_the_skype_highlighting1017 MacDonald Ave.
Richmond, CA 94802
(510) 233-9954 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (510) 233-9954      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; 

50 Fell Street
San Francisco, CA 94102
(415) 982-1300 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (415) 982-1300      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

2 West Santa Clara St., 8th Floor
San Jose, CA 95113
(408) 283-3700 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (408) 283-3700      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

 

 

 

Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Legal Aid of the North Bay
30 N. San Pedro Road #245
San Rafael, CA 94903
(415) 492-0230  FAX (415) 472-7400
Gregory Reed Brockbank
101 Lucas Valley Rd #380
San Rafael, CA 94903
(415) 472-4400 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (415) 472-4400      end_of_the_skype_highlighting;
Legal Aid of Sonoma County
1105 N. Dutton #B
Santa Rosa, CA 95404
(707) 542-1290
Marc A. Eisenhart /Gates Eisenhart Dawson
125 S. Market St #1200
San Jose, CA 95113
408 288 8100; FAX 408 288 9409
Legal Aid Society of Santa Clara
480 North First Street
San Jose, CA 95112
(408) 998-5200 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (408) 998-5200      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Senior Adults Legal Assistance
160 E. Virginia Street #260
San Jose, CA 95112
(408) 295-5991/ (408)847-7252 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (408)847-7252      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Central Coast
Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Ed Frey
2820 Porter St
Soquel, CA 95073
(831)479-8911 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (831)479-8911      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Ernest Fox
555 Soquel Ave. #230
Santa Cruz, CA 95062
(831)427-2114 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (831)427-2114      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Kent Washburn
501 Moraga Way
Orinda, CA 94563
(925) 377-0231 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (925) 377-0231      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; FAX (925) 254-3815
California Rural Legal Assistance
2100 Garden Road, #D
Monterey, CA 93940
(831) 375-0505 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (831) 375-0505      end_of_the_skype_highlighting21 Carr Street
Watsonville, CA 95076
(831) 724-2253; FAX  831 724 7530 

Santa Cruz/Housing Law Center
501 Soquel Avenue, Suite D
Santa Cruz, CA 95062
(831) 458-1089; FAX 831 458-1140

Randolph W. Andell
1591 Spinnaker Dr. #203
Ventura, CA 93001
(805) 339-0101; Fax (805) 339-0202
—————and————–
1220 1/2 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA. 93101
(805) 339-0101; Fax (805) 339-0202
Legal Aid Foundation Santa Barbara
301 E. Canon Perdido Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
(805) 963-6754 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (805) 963-6754      end_of_the_skype_highlighting505A S. McClelland Ave.
Santa Maria, CA 93454
(805) 922-9909 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (805) 922-9909      end_of_the_skype_highlighting 

110 S. “C” Street, Ste. C
Lompoc, CA 93436
(805) 736-6582

Legal Services for Seniors
915 Hilby Ave. Ste. 2
Seaside, CA 93955
(831) 899-0492 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (831) 899-0492      end_of_the_skype_highlighting21 W. Laurel Drive, Suite 83
Salinas, CA 93906
(831) 442-7700 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (831) 442-7700      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; (800) 499-1247 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800) 499-1247      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Central Valley
Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Greater Bakersfield Legal Assistance
615 California Avenue
Bakersfield, CA 93304
661-325-5943 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              661-325-5943      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; tollfree 888.292.GBLA begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              888.292.GBLA      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Central California Legal Services
357 W. Main Street, Suite 201
Merced, CA 95340
(209) 723-5466 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (209) 723-5466      end_of_the_skype_highlighting1401 Fulton St #700
Fresno, CA 93721-2011
(559) 441-1611 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (559) 441-1611      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; (800)-675-8001 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800)-675-8001      end_of_the_skype_highlighting 

208 W. Main Street, Suite U-1
Visalia, CA 93291
(559)733-8770 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (559)733-8770      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; (800)350-3654 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800)350-3654      end_of_the_skype_highlighting (Tulare)
(559)584-2631 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (559)584-2631      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; (800)417-3296 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800)417-3296      end_of_the_skype_highlighting (Kings)

 


visalia

Brian Lawlor
Legal Services of Northern California
515 12th Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
(916) 551-2150  FAX (916)551-2196
Los Angeles
Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Fran Campbell .
633 W. Fifth Street, Ste. 2800
Los Angeles, CA  90071
(213) 223-2065  FAX (213) 223-2066
Daniel Marquez
1605 W. Olympic Blvd #588
Los Angeles, CA 90015
(213)632-6111; FAX (213)632-6114
Robert Sainburg
620 N. Brand Blvd #405
Glendale, California 91203
(818) 550-5001 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (818) 550-5001      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; FAX: (818) 550-5008
Eviction Defense Network
1930 Wilshire Blvd. #208
Los Angeles, CA 90057
(213) 385-8112 FAX (213)385-8181
Scott Broffman
5455 Wilshire Blvd #1012
Los Angeles, CA 90036
(323)937-5030; FAX 323 937-3510
Law Offices of Liddle & Liddle
310 South Vermont Avenue
Glendora, CA 91741
626-963-1638 FAX 626-914-0710
[Commercial leasing consultations ONLY]
Robb M. Strom
6500 Wilshire Blvd 16th Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90048
(323)852-1888 FAX (323) 852 1889
Pomona Self-Help Legal Center
400 Civic Center Plaza, 7th Fl
Pomona, CA 91766-3201
David C. Dantes
12400 Ventura Blvd., Suite 689
Studio City, CA 91604
(818)386-9333 FAX (818)386-9444
Philip Shakhnis
1055 Wilshire Blvd #1660
Los Angeles, CA 90017
(213)250-9367; FAX (213)937-9368
Larry Rosenberg
14401 Sylvan Street, # 200
Van Nuys, CA 91401-2637
(818) 989-2434 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (818) 989-2434      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; (323) 873-4044 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (323) 873-4044      end_of_the_skype_highlighting ; Fax: (818) 989-3815
Stephen Downey
10200 Sepulveda Blvd. #140
Mission Hills, CA 91345
(818)672-8258 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (818)672-8258      end_of_the_skype_highlighting    FAX:  -8266
Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Edward I. Sands
835 S. Lucerne Blvd #110
Los Angeles, CA 90005
(323)931-6990 FAX (323)931-5643
Charles Odiase
3540 Wilshire Blvd #511
Los Angeles, CA 90010
(213)385-0193 FAX -0576
Omatshola Enafete Dafeta
3540 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 1118
Los Angeles, CA 90010
(213)381-1155 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (213)381-1155      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Levi Uku
3540 Wilshire Blvd #1028
Los Angeles, CA 90010
(213)385-0193   FAX -0576
Victor Hairapetian
300 W Glenoaks Blvd 202
Glendale, CA 91202
(818)500-9881 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (818)500-9881      end_of_the_skype_highlighting FAX: (818)500-9886
Raymond Hovsepian
3171 Los Feliz Blvd #301
Los Angeles, CA 90039
(323)953-9494 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (323)953-9494      end_of_the_skype_highlighting FAX: (323)953-9777
William J. Middleton
5002 York Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90042
(323) 478-1156     FAX (323) 478-9094
Sonya Bekoff Molho
12240 Venice Blvd #22
Los Angeles, CA 90066
(310)390-3583 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (310)390-3583      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Andrew M Zanger
2118 Wilshire Blvd #984
Santa Monica, CA 90403
(310)393-9794 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (310)393-9794      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Franklin Radoff
19528 Ventura Blvd #572
Tarzana, CA 91356
(818)705-3059  FAX (818)705-4920
James G McCone
25835 Narbonne Ave #295
Lomita, CA 90717
(310)539-4555 Fax (310)539-4888
Lawrence C. Hales
5130 Batris Ln.
Quartz Hill, CA 93536
(661)723-5530; FAX (661)942-7055
Legal Aid Foundation of Los Angeles
1102 South Crenshaw Boulevard
Los Angeles, CA 90019-3111
(800) 399-4529 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800) 399-4529      end_of_the_skype_highlightingEviction Defense Center
1550 W. 8th St.
Los Angeles, CA 90022
(213) 640-3881 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (213) 640-3881      end_of_the_skype_highlighting 

110 Pine Ave., Suite 420
Long Beach, CA 90802
(562) 435-3501 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (562) 435-3501      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

1640 5th St., Suite 124
Santa Monica, CA 90401
(310) 899-6200 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (310) 899-6200      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

5228 Whittier Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90022
(213) 640-3883 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (213) 640-3883      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

8601 S. Broadway Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90003
(213) 640-3884 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (213) 640-3884      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

Bet Tzedek Legal Services
145 South Fairfax Avenue, #200
Los Angeles, CA 90036
(323) 939-0506 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (323) 939-0506      end_of_the_skype_highlighting 

12821 Victory Boulevard
North Hollywood, CA 91606
(818) 769-0136 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (818) 769-0136      end_of_the_skype_highlighting@Plummer Park
3435 Wilshire Blvd #470
Los Angeles, CA 90010
(213) 384-3243 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (213) 384-3243      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

Valley Legal Services
243 E. Mission Boulevard
Pomona, CA 91766
(909) 620-5547 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (909) 620-5547      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Community Services of Southeast LA
725 W. Rosecrans
Compton, California 90222
(800) 834-5001 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800) 834-5001      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; 310 638 5524 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              310 638 5524      end_of_the_skype_highlighting 

11834 E. Firestone Blvd
Norwalk, California 90650
(800) 834-5001 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800) 834-5001      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; 562 864-9935 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              562 864-9935      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

Legal Services for  Pasadena & San Gabriel-Pomona Valleys
241 & 243 East Mission Boulevard
Pomona, CA 91766
(909) 623-6357 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (909) 623-6357      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Neighborhood Legal Services Inc.
13327 Van Nuys Boulevard
Pacoima, CA 91331-3099
(818) 896-5211 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (818) 896-5211      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Inland Empire
Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Michael S. Feinberg / Feinberg & Fitch
24641 Washington Ave.
Murrieta, Ca. 92562
(909) 698-9900 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (909) 698-9900      end_of_the_skype_highlighting FAX: (909) 698-9909
Ken Carlson
PO Box 2417
Idyllwild, CA 92549
(951 659-6043 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              951 659-6043      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; FAX 888 764 1919
Suzanne Klump
PO Box 4020,
Crestline CA 92325
(909)338-9362-1FAX(909)338-5658
Robert J. Spitz
204 N. San Antonio
Ontario, CA 91762
(909) 395 0909 Fax 909 395 9535
Inland Counties Legal Services
1737 Atlanta Ave., #H3
Riverside, CA 92507
(909) 368-2555 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (909) 368-2555      end_of_the_skype_highlighting45-550 Grace Street
Indio, CA 92201
(760) 342-1591 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (760) 342-1591      end_of_the_skype_highlighting 

715 N. Arrowhead Avenue, #113
San Bernardino, CA 92401
(909) 884-8615 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (909) 884-8615      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; (800) 677-4257 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800) 677-4257      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

10601 Civic Center Drive #260
Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730
(909) 980-0982 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (909) 980-0982      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; (800) 977-4257 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800) 977-4257      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

14196 Amargosa Road  #K
Victorville, CA 92392
(760) 241-7073 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (760) 241-7073      end_of_the_skype_highlighting

Inland Empire Latino Lawyers Legal Aid
2060 University Avenue,#113
Riverside, CA 92507
(909) 369-3009 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (909) 369-3009      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Legal Aid Society of San Bernardino
354 West 6th Street
San Bernardino, CA 92401
(909) 381-4633 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (909) 381-4633      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Orange County
Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Deborah M. Vasquez
600 W. Santa Ana Blvd., Suite 814
Santa Ana, California 92701

(71`4)505-4529; FAX (714)590-6484
Robert P. Famularo
12842 Valley View #202
Garden Grove, CA 92845 2514
(714)379-3195 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (714)379-3195      end_of_the_skype_highlighting   famularoassociates@socal.rr.com
Jeffrey Wilens, Esq.  Lakeshore Law Center
17476 Yorba Linda Blvd., Suite 221
Yorba Linda, CA 92886
714-854-7205 714-854-7206 (fax)
David Salisbury
10646 El Morro Cir
Fountain Valley, CA 92708-4825  (714)654-5739
Richard Spix
1505 E. 17th St., Ste. 229
Santa Ana, CA 92705
(714) 835-5112 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (714) 835-5112      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
E. Daniel Bors Jr.
23461 South Pointe Drive #350
Laguna Hills, CA 92653-1546
(949) 206-9900  FAX (949) 586-7798
L. Sue Loftin            [Mobilehome Residency Law]
5760 Fleet Street, Suite 110
Carlsbad CA 92008
760-431-2111 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              760-431-2111      end_of_the_skype_highlighting, FAX 760-431-2003
Legal Aid Society of Orange County
2101 N., Tustin Ave.
Santa Ana, CA 92701
(714)571-5200 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (714)571-5200      end_of_the_skype_highlighting250 E. Center St.
Anaheim, California 92801
(714) 571-5200 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (714) 571-5200      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Public Law Center
601 Civic Center Drive West
Santa Ana, CA 92701
(714) 541-1010 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (714) 541-1010      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
San Diego
Area Attorney or Legal Agency e-mail Website
Steve Kellman
Tenants Legal Center  of San Diego
5252 Balboa Ave, #408
San Diego, California 92117
(858) 571-7100 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (858) 571-7100      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Legal Aid Society of San Diego
110 South Euclid Avenue
San Diego, CA 92114
(619) 262-0896 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (619) 262-0896      end_of_the_skype_highlighting; (877) 734-3258 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (877) 734-3258      end_of_the_skype_highlighting216 South Tremont Street
Oceanside, CA 92054
(760) 722-1935 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (760) 722-1935      end_of_the_skype_highlighting;  (760) 724-2740
Multi County 

 

The following have many offices throughout California, in the rural areas as well as urban areas. See the associated map to see all of the locations and make contact with the closest office.
California Indian Legal Services
[See Map]
California Rural Legal Assistance
[See map on their website-many locations]

 

Partially updated 3/19/10

Eviction statute california ccp 1161a

18 Oct

California Code of Civil Procedure Section 1161a

Legal Research Home > California Lawyer > Code of Civil Procedure > California Code of Civil Procedure Section 1161a

(a) As used in this section:
   (1) "Manufactured home" has the same meaning as provided in
Section 18007 of the Health and Safety Code.
   (2) "Mobilehome" has the same meaning as provided in Section 18008
of the Health and Safety Code.
   (3) "Floating home" has the same meaning as provided in
subdivision (d) of Section 18075.55 of the Health and Safety Code.
   (b) In any of the following cases, a person who holds over and
continues in possession of a manufactured home, mobilehome, floating
home, or real property after a three-day written notice to quit the
property has been served upon the person, or if there is a subtenant
in actual occupation of the premises, also upon such subtenant, as
prescribed in Section 1162, may be removed therefrom as prescribed in
this chapter:
   (1) Where the property has been sold pursuant to a writ of
execution against such person, or a person under whom such person
claims, and the title under the sale has been duly perfected.
   (2) Where the property has been sold pursuant to a writ of sale,
upon the foreclosure by proceedings taken as prescribed in this code
of a mortgage, or under an express power of sale contained therein,
executed by such person, or a person under whom such person claims,
and the title under the foreclosure has been duly perfected.
   (3) Where the property has been sold in accordance with Section
2924 of the Civil Code, under a power of sale contained in a deed of
trust executed by such person, or a person under whom such person
claims, and the title under the sale has been duly perfected.
   (4) Where the property has been sold by such person, or a person
under whom such person claims, and the title under the sale has been
duly perfected.
   (5) Where the property has been sold in accordance with Section
18037.5 of the Health and Safety Code under the default provisions of
a conditional sale contract or security agreement executed by such
person, or a person under whom such person claims, and the title
under the sale has been duly perfected.
   (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (b), a tenant or
subtenant in possession of a rental housing unit which has been sold
by reason of any of the causes enumerated in subdivision (b), who
rents or leases the rental housing unit either on a periodic basis
from week to week, month to month, or other interval, or for a fixed
period of time, shall be given written notice to quit pursuant to
Section 1162, at least as long as the term of hiring itself but not
exceeding 30 days, before the tenant or subtenant may be removed
therefrom as prescribed in this chapter.
   (d) For the purpose of subdivision (c), "rental housing unit"
means any structure or any part thereof which is rented or offered
for rent for residential occupancy in this state.
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