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Tenants in rentals that is forclosed have rights to a new agreement with new owner Civil code 1962 if they evict they are liable wrongful eviction = Punative damages !!!

23 Jul

Civil Code – CIV

DIVISION 3. OBLIGATIONS [1427. - 3272.9.]

( Heading of Division 3 amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 160, Sec. 14. )

PART 4. OBLIGATIONS ARISING FROM PARTICULAR TRANSACTIONS [1738. - 3272.9.]

( Part 4 enacted 1872. )

TITLE 5. HIRING [1925. - 1997.270.]

( Title 5 enacted 1872. )

 

CHAPTER 4. Identification of Property Owners [1961. - 1962.7.]

( Chapter 4 added by Stats. 1972, Ch. 941. )

 

1961.

This chapter shall apply to every dwelling structure containing one or more units offered to the public for rent or for lease for residential purposes.

(Amended by Stats. 1987, Ch. 769, Sec. 1.)

1962.

(a) Any owner of a dwelling structure specified in Section 1961 or a party signing a rental agreement or lease on behalf of the owner shall do all of the following:

(1) Disclose therein the name, telephone number, and usual street address at which personal service may be effected of each person who is:

(A) Authorized to manage the premises.

(B) An owner of the premises or a person who is authorized to act for and on behalf of the owner for the purpose of service of process and for the purpose of receiving and receipting for all notices and demands.

(2) Disclose therein the name, telephone number, and address of the person or entity to whom rent payments shall be made.

(A) If rent payments may be made personally, the usual days and hours that the person will be available to receive the payments shall also be disclosed.

(B) At the owner’s option, the rental agreement or lease shall instead disclose the number of either:

(i) The account in a financial institution into which rent payments may be made, and the name and street address of the institution; provided that the institution is located within five miles of the rental property.

(ii) The information necessary to establish an electronic funds transfer procedure for paying the rent.

(3) Disclose therein the form or forms in which rent payments are to be made.

(4) Provide a copy of the rental agreement or lease to the tenant within 15 days of its execution by the tenant. Once each calendar year thereafter, upon request by the tenant, the owner or owner’s agent shall provide an additional copy to the tenant within 15 days. If the owner or owner’s agent does not possess the rental agreement or lease or a copy of it, the owner or owner’s agent shall instead furnish the tenant with a written statement stating that fact and containing the information required by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3).

(b) In the case of an oral rental agreement, the owner, or a person acting on behalf of the owner for the receipt of rent or otherwise, shall furnish the tenant, within 15 days of the agreement, with a written statement containing the information required by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subdivision (a). Once each calendar year thereafter, upon request by the tenant, the owner or owner’s agent shall provide an additional copy of the statement to the tenant within 15 days.

(c) The information required by this section shall be kept current and this section shall extend to and be enforceable against any successor owner or manager, who shall comply with this section within 15 days of succeeding the previous owner or manager. A successor owner or manager shall not serve a notice pursuant to paragraph (2) of Section 1161 of the Code of Civil Procedure or otherwise evict a tenant for nonpayment of rent that accrued during the period of noncompliance by a successor owner or manager with this subdivision. Nothing in this subdivision shall relieve the tenant of any liability for unpaid rent.

(d) A party who enters into a rental agreement on behalf of the owner who fails to comply with this section is deemed an agent of each person who is an owner:

(1) For the purpose of service of process and receiving and receipting for notices and demands.

(2) For the purpose of performing the obligations of the owner under law and under the rental agreement.

(3) For the purpose of receiving rental payments, which may be made in cash, by check, by money order, or in any form previously accepted by the owner or owner’s agent, unless the form of payment has been specified in the oral or written agreement, or the tenant has been notified by the owner in writing that a particular form of payment is unacceptable.

(e) Nothing in this section limits or excludes the liability of any undisclosed owner.

(f) If the address provided by the owner does not allow for personal delivery, then it shall be conclusively presumed that upon the mailing of any rent or notice to the owner by the tenant to the name and address provided, the notice or rent is deemed receivable by the owner on the date posted, if the tenant can show proof of mailing to the name and address provided by the owner.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 695, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2013.)

1962.5.

(a) Notwithstanding subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 1962, the information required by paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 1962 to be disclosed to a tenant may, instead of being disclosed in the manner described in subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 1962, be disclosed by the following method:

(1) In each dwelling structure containing an elevator a printed or typewritten notice containing the information required by paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 1962 shall be placed in every elevator and in one other conspicuous place.

(2) In each structure not containing an elevator, a printed or typewritten notice containing the information required by paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 1962 shall be placed in at least two conspicuous places.

(3) In the case of a single unit dwelling structure, the information to be disclosed under this section may be disclosed by complying with either paragraph (1) or (2).

(b) Except as provided in subdivision (a), all the provisions of Section 1962 shall be applicable.

(Amended by Stats. 2001, Ch. 729, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 2002.)

1962.7.

In the event an owner, successor owner, manager, or agent specified in Section 1961 fails to comply with the requirements of this chapter, service of process by a tenant with respect to a dispute arising out of the tenancy may be made by registered or certified mail sent to the address at which rent is paid, in which case the provisions of Section 1013 of the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply.

(Amended by Stats. 2001, Ch. 729, Sec. 5. Effective January 1, 2002.)

1159.  Every person is guilty of a forcible entry who either:
   1. By breaking open doors, windows, or other parts of a house, or
by any kind of violence or circumstance of terror enters upon or into
any real property; or,
   2. Who, after entering peaceably upon real property, turns out by
force, threats, or menacing conduct, the party in possession.
   The "party in possession" means any person who hires real property
and includes a boarder or lodger, except those persons whose
occupancy is described in subdivision (b) of Section 1940 of the
Civil Code.

1160.  Every person is guilty of a forcible detainer who either:
   1. By force, or by menaces and threats of violence, unlawfully
holds and keeps the possession of any real property, whether the same
was acquired peaceably or otherwise; or,
   2. Who, in the night-time, or during the absence of the occupant
of any lands, unlawfully enters upon real property, and who, after
demand made for the surrender thereof, for the period of five days,
refuses to surrender the same to such former occupant.
   The occupant of real property, within the meaning of this
subdivision, is one who, within five days preceding such unlawful
entry, was in the peaceable and undisturbed possession of such lands.

1161.  A tenant of real property, for a term less than life, or the
executor or administrator of his or her estate heretofore qualified
and now acting or hereafter to be qualified and act, is guilty of
unlawful detainer:
   1. When he or she continues in possession, in person or by
subtenant, of the property, or any part thereof, after the expiration
of the term for which it is let to him or her; provided the
expiration is of a nondefault nature however brought about without
the permission of his or her landlord, or the successor in estate of
his or her landlord, if applicable; including the case where the
person to be removed became the occupant of the premises as a
servant, employee, agent, or licensee and the relation of master and
servant, or employer and employee, or principal and agent, or
licensor and licensee, has been lawfully terminated or the time fixed
for occupancy by the agreement between the parties has expired; but
nothing in this subdivision shall be construed as preventing the
removal of the occupant in any other lawful manner; but in case of a
tenancy at will, it must first be terminated by notice, as prescribed
in the Civil Code.
   2. When he or she continues in possession, in person or by
subtenant, without the permission of his or her landlord, or the
successor in estate of his or her landlord, if applicable, after
default in the payment of rent, pursuant to the lease or agreement
under which the property is held, and three days' notice, in writing,
requiring its payment, stating the amount which is due, the name,
telephone number, and address of the person to whom the rent payment
shall be made, and, if payment may be made personally, the usual days
and hours that person will be available to receive the payment
(provided that, if the address does not allow for personal delivery,
then it shall be conclusively presumed that upon the mailing of any
rent or notice to the owner by the tenant to the name and address
provided, the notice or rent is deemed received by the owner on the
date posted, if the tenant can show proof of mailing to the name and
address provided by the owner), or the number of an account in a
financial institution into which the rental payment may be made, and
the name and street address of the institution (provided that the
institution is located within five miles of the rental property), or
if an electronic funds transfer procedure has been previously
established, that payment may be made pursuant to that procedure, or
possession of the property, shall have been served upon him or her
and if there is a subtenant in actual occupation of the premises,
also upon the subtenant.
   The notice may be served at any time within one year after the
rent becomes due. In all cases of tenancy upon agricultural lands,
where the tenant has held over and retained possession for more than
60 days after the expiration of the term without any demand of
possession or notice to quit by the landlord or the successor in
estate of his or her landlord, if applicable, he or she shall be
deemed to be holding by permission of the landlord or successor in
estate of his or her landlord, if applicable, and shall be entitled
to hold under the terms of the lease for another full year, and shall
not be guilty of an unlawful detainer during that year, and the
holding over for that period shall be taken and construed as a
consent on the part of a tenant to hold for another year.
   3. When he or she continues in possession, in person or by
subtenant, after a neglect or failure to perform other conditions or
covenants of the lease or agreement under which the property is held,
including any covenant not to assign or sublet, than the one for the
payment of rent, and three days' notice, in writing, requiring the
performance of such conditions or covenants, or the possession of the
property, shall have been served upon him or her, and if there is a
subtenant in actual occupation of the premises, also, upon the
subtenant. Within three days after the service of the notice, the
tenant, or any subtenant in actual occupation of the premises, or any
mortgagee of the term, or other person interested in its
continuance, may perform the conditions or covenants of the lease or
pay the stipulated rent, as the case may be, and thereby save the
lease from forfeiture; provided, if the conditions and covenants of
the lease, violated by the lessee, cannot afterward be performed,
then no notice, as last prescribed herein, need be given to the
lessee or his or her subtenant, demanding the performance of the
violated conditions or covenants of the lease.
   A tenant may take proceedings, similar to those prescribed in this
chapter, to obtain possession of the premises let to a subtenant or
held by a servant, employee, agent, or licensee, in case of his or
her unlawful detention of the premises underlet to him or her or held
by him or her.
   4. Any tenant, subtenant, or executor or administrator of his or
her estate heretofore qualified and now acting, or hereafter to be
qualified and act, assigning or subletting or committing waste upon
the demised premises, contrary to the conditions or covenants of his
or her lease, or maintaining, committing, or permitting the
maintenance or commission of a nuisance upon the demised premises or
using the premises for an unlawful purpose, thereby terminates the
lease, and the landlord, or his or her successor in estate, shall
upon service of three days' notice to quit upon the person or persons
in possession, be entitled to restitution of possession of the
demised premises under this chapter. For purposes of this
subdivision, a person who commits or maintains a public nuisance as
described in Section 3482.8 of the Civil Code, or who commits an
offense described in subdivision (c) of Section 3485 of the Civil
Code, or subdivision (c) of Section 3486 of the Civil Code, or uses
the premises to further the purpose of that offense shall be deemed
to have committed a nuisance upon the premises.
   5. When he or she gives written notice as provided in Section 1946
of the Civil Code of his or her intention to terminate the hiring of
the real property, or makes a written offer to surrender which is
accepted in writing by the landlord, but fails to deliver possession
at the time specified in that written notice, without the permission
of his or her landlord, or the successor in estate of the landlord,
if applicable.
   As used in this section, tenant includes any person who hires real
property except those persons whose occupancy is described in
subdivision (b) of Section 1940 of the Civil Code.
   This section shall become operative on January 1, 2012.

1161.1.  With respect to application of Section 1161 in cases of
possession of commercial real property after default in the payment
of rent:
   (a) If the amount stated in the notice provided to the tenant
pursuant to subdivision (2) of Section 1161 is clearly identified by
the notice as an estimate and the amount claimed is not in fact
correct, but it is determined upon the trial or other judicial
determination that rent was owing, and the amount claimed in the
notice was reasonably estimated, the tenant shall be subject to
judgment for possession and the actual amount of rent and other sums
found to be due. However, if (1) upon receipt of such a notice
claiming an amount identified by the notice as an estimate, the
tenant tenders to the landlord within the time for payment required
by the notice, the amount which the tenant has reasonably estimated
to be due and (2) if at trial it is determined that the amount of
rent then due was the amount tendered by the tenant or a lesser
amount, the tenant shall be deemed the prevailing party for all
purposes. If the court determines that the amount so tendered by the
tenant was less than the amount due, but was reasonably estimated,
the tenant shall retain the right to possession if the tenant pays to
the landlord within five days of the effective date of the judgment
(1) the amount previously tendered if it had not been previously
accepted, (2) the difference between the amount tendered and the
amount determined by the court to be due, and (3) any other sums as
ordered by the court.
   (b) If the landlord accepts a partial payment of rent, including
any payment pursuant to subdivision (a), after serving notice
pursuant to Section 1161, the landlord, without any further notice to
the tenant, may commence and pursue an action under this chapter to
recover the difference between the amount demanded in that notice and
the payment actually received, and this shall be specified in the
complaint.
   (c) If the landlord accepts a partial payment of rent after filing
the complaint pursuant to Section 1166, the landlord's acceptance of
the partial payment is evidence only of that payment, without waiver
of any rights or defenses of any of the parties. The landlord shall
be entitled to amend the complaint to reflect the partial payment
without creating a necessity for the filing of an additional answer
or other responsive pleading by the tenant, and without prior leave
of court, and such an amendment shall not delay the matter from
proceeding. However, this subdivision shall apply only if the
landlord provides actual notice to the tenant that acceptance of the
partial rent payment does not constitute a waiver of any rights,
including any right the landlord may have to recover possession of
the property.
   (d) "Commercial real property" as used in this section, means all
real property in this state except dwelling units made subject to
Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 1940) of Title 5 of Part 4 of
Division 3 of the Civil Code, mobilehomes as defined in Section 798.3
of the Civil Code, or recreational vehicles as defined in Section
799.24 of the Civil Code.
   (e) For the purposes of this section, there is a presumption
affecting the burden of proof that the amount of rent claimed or
tendered is reasonably estimated if, in relation to the amount
determined to be due upon the trial or other judicial determination
of that issue, the amount claimed or tendered was no more than 20
percent more or less than the amount determined to be due. However,
if the rent due is contingent upon information primarily within the
knowledge of the one party to the lease and that information has not
been furnished to, or has not accurately been furnished to, the other
party, the court shall consider that fact in determining the
reasonableness of the amount of rent claimed or tendered pursuant to
subdivision (a).

1161.2.  (a) The clerk may allow access to limited civil case
records filed under this chapter, including the court file, index,
and register of actions, only as follows:
   (1) To a party to the action, including a party's attorney.
   (2) To any person who provides the clerk with the names of at
least one plaintiff and one defendant and the address of the
premises, including the apartment or unit number, if any.
   (3) To a resident of the premises who provides the clerk with the
name of one of the parties or the case number and shows proof of
residency.
   (4) To any person by order of the court, which may be granted ex
parte, on a showing of good cause.
   (5) Except as provided in paragraph (6), to any other person 60
days after the complaint has been filed, unless a defendant prevails
in the action within 60 days of the filing of the complaint, in which
case the clerk may not allow access to any court records in the
action, except as provided in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive.
   (6) In the case of a complaint involving residential property
based on Section 1161a as indicated in the caption of the complaint,
as required in subdivision (c) of Section 1166, to any other person,
if 60 days have elapsed since the complaint was filed with the court,
and, as of that date, judgment against all defendants has been
entered for the plaintiff, after a trial. If judgment is not entered
under the conditions described in this paragraph, the clerk shall not
allow access to any court records in the action, except as provided
in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive.
   (b) For purposes of this section, "good cause" includes, but is
not limited to, the gathering of newsworthy facts by a person
described in Section 1070 of the Evidence Code. It is the intent of
the Legislature that a simple procedure be established to request the
ex parte order described in subdivision (a).
   (c) Upon the filing of any case so restricted, the court clerk
shall mail notice to each defendant named in the action. The notice
shall be mailed to the address provided in the complaint. The notice
shall contain a statement that an unlawful detainer complaint
(eviction action) has been filed naming that party as a defendant,
and that access to the court file will be delayed for 60 days except
to a party, an attorney for one of the parties, or any other person
who (1) provides to the clerk the names of at least one plaintiff and
one defendant in the action and provides to the clerk the address,
including any applicable apartment, unit, or space number, of the
subject premises, or (2) provides to the clerk the name of one of the
parties in the action or the case number and can establish through
proper identification that he or she lives at the subject premises.
The notice shall also contain a statement that access to the court
index, register of actions, or other records is not permitted until
60 days after the complaint is filed, except pursuant to an order
upon a showing of good cause therefor. The notice shall contain on
its face the following information:
   (1) The name and telephone number of the county bar association.
   (2) The name and telephone number of any entity that requests
inclusion on the notice and demonstrates to the satisfaction of the
court that it has been certified by the State Bar as a lawyer
referral service and maintains a panel of attorneys qualified in the
practice of landlord-tenant law pursuant to the minimum standards for
a lawyer referral service established by the State Bar and Section
6155 of the Business and Professions Code.
   (3) The following statement:

   "The State Bar of California certifies lawyer referral services in
California and publishes a list of certified lawyer referral
services organized by county. To locate a lawyer referral service in
your county, go to the State Bar's website at www.calbar.ca.gov or
call 1-866-442-2529."

   (4) The name and telephone number of an office or offices funded
by the federal Legal Services Corporation or qualified legal services
projects that receive funds distributed pursuant to Section 6216 of
the Business and Professions Code that provide legal services to
low-income persons in the county in which the action is filed. The
notice shall state that these numbers may be called for legal advice
regarding the case. The notice shall be issued between 24 and 48
hours of the filing of the complaint, excluding weekends and
holidays. One copy of the notice shall be addressed to "all occupants"
and mailed separately to the subject premises. The notice shall not
constitute service of the summons and complaint.
   (d) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall
charge an additional fee of fifteen dollars ($15) for filing a first
appearance by the plaintiff. This fee shall be added to the uniform
filing fee for actions filed under this chapter.
   (e) This section does not apply to a case that seeks to terminate
a mobilehome park tenancy if the statement of the character of the
proceeding in the caption of the complaint clearly indicates that the
complaint seeks termination of a mobilehome park tenancy.

1161.3.  (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), a landlord shall
not terminate a tenancy or fail to renew a tenancy based upon an act
or acts against a tenant or a tenant's household member that
constitute domestic violence as defined in Section 6211 of the Family
Code, sexual assault as defined in Section 1219, stalking as defined
in Section 1708.7 of the Civil Code or Section 646.9 of the Penal
Code, or abuse of an elder or a dependent adult as defined in Section
15610.07 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, if both of the
following apply:
   (1) The act or acts of domestic violence, sexual assault,
stalking, or abuse of an elder or a dependent adult have been
documented by one of the following:
   (A) A temporary restraining order, emergency protective order, or
protective order lawfully issued within the last 180 days pursuant to
Section 527.6, Part 3 (commencing with Section 6240), Part 4
(commencing with Section 6300), or Part 5 (commencing with Section
6400) of Division 10 of the Family Code, Section 136.2 of the Penal
Code, or Section 213.5 or 15657.03 of the Welfare and Institutions
Code that protects the tenant or household member from domestic
violence, sexual assault, stalking, or abuse of an elder or a
dependent adult.
   (B) A copy of a written report, written within the last 180 days,
by a peace officer employed by a state or local law enforcement
agency acting in his or her official capacity, stating that the
tenant or household member has filed a report alleging that he or she
or the household member is a victim of domestic violence, sexual
assault, stalking, or abuse of an elder or a dependent adult.
   (2) The person against whom the protection order has been issued
or who was named in the police report of the act or acts of domestic
violence, sexual assault, stalking, or abuse of an elder or dependent
adult is not a tenant of the same dwelling unit as the tenant or
household member.
   (b) A landlord may terminate or decline to renew a tenancy after
the tenant has availed himself or herself of the protections afforded
by subdivision (a) if both of the following apply:
   (1) Either of the following:
   (A) The tenant allows the person against whom the protection order
has been issued or who was named in the police report of the act or
acts of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, or abuse of an
elder or a dependent adult to visit the property.
   (B) The landlord reasonably believes that the presence of the
person against whom the protection order has been issued or who was
named in the police report of the act or acts of domestic violence,
sexual assault, stalking, or abuse of an elder or dependent adult
poses a physical threat to other tenants, guests, invitees, or
licensees, or to a tenant's right to quiet possession pursuant to
Section 1927 of the Civil Code.
   (2) The landlord previously gave at least three days' notice to
the tenant to correct a violation of paragraph (1).
   (c) Notwithstanding any provision in the lease to the contrary,
the landlord shall not be liable to any other tenants for any action
that arises due to the landlord's compliance with this section.
   (d) For the purposes of this section, "tenant" means tenant,
subtenant, lessee, or sublessee.
   (e) The Judicial Council shall, on or before January 1, 2014,
develop a new form or revise an existing form that may be used by a
party to assert in the responsive pleading the grounds set forth in
this section as an affirmative defense to an unlawful detainer
action.

1161.5.  When the notice required by Section 1161 states that the
lessor or the landlord may elect to declare the forfeiture of the
lease or rental agreement, that declaration shall be nullified and
the lease or rental agreement shall remain in effect if the lessee or
tenant performs within three days after service of the notice or if
the breach is waived by the lessor or the landlord after service of
the notice.

1161a.  (a) As used in this section:
   (1) "Manufactured home" has the same meaning as provided in
Section 18007 of the Health and Safety Code.
   (2) "Mobilehome" has the same meaning as provided in Section 18008
of the Health and Safety Code.
   (3) "Floating home" has the same meaning as provided in
subdivision (d) of Section 18075.55 of the Health and Safety Code.
   (b) In any of the following cases, a person who holds over and
continues in possession of a manufactured home, mobilehome, floating
home, or real property after a three-day written notice to quit the
property has been served upon the person, or if there is a subtenant
in actual occupation of the premises, also upon such subtenant, as
prescribed in Section 1162, may be removed therefrom as prescribed in
this chapter:
   (1) Where the property has been sold pursuant to a writ of
execution against such person, or a person under whom such person
claims, and the title under the sale has been duly perfected.
   (2) Where the property has been sold pursuant to a writ of sale,
upon the foreclosure by proceedings taken as prescribed in this code
of a mortgage, or under an express power of sale contained therein,
executed by such person, or a person under whom such person claims,
and the title under the foreclosure has been duly perfected.
   (3) Where the property has been sold in accordance with Section
2924 of the Civil Code, under a power of sale contained in a deed of
trust executed by such person, or a person under whom such person
claims, and the title under the sale has been duly perfected.
   (4) Where the property has been sold by such person, or a person
under whom such person claims, and the title under the sale has been
duly perfected.
   (5) Where the property has been sold in accordance with Section
18037.5 of the Health and Safety Code under the default provisions of
a conditional sale contract or security agreement executed by such
person, or a person under whom such person claims, and the title
under the sale has been duly perfected.
   (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (b), a tenant or
subtenant in possession of a rental housing unit which has been sold
by reason of any of the causes enumerated in subdivision (b), who
rents or leases the rental housing unit either on a periodic basis
from week to week, month to month, or other interval, or for a fixed
period of time, shall be given written notice to quit pursuant to
Section 1162, at least as long as the term of hiring itself but not
exceeding 30 days, before the tenant or subtenant may be removed
therefrom as prescribed in this chapter.
   (d) For the purpose of subdivision (c), "rental housing unit"
means any structure or any part thereof which is rented or offered
for rent for residential occupancy in this state.

1161b.  (a) Notwithstanding Section 1161a, a tenant or subtenant in
possession of a rental housing unit under a month-to-month lease or
periodic tenancy at the time the property is sold in foreclosure
shall be given 90 days' written notice to quit pursuant to Section
1162 before the tenant or subtenant may be removed from the property
as prescribed in this chapter.
   (b) In addition to the rights set forth in subdivision (a),
tenants or subtenants holding possession of a rental housing unit
under a fixed-term residential lease entered into before transfer of
title at the foreclosure sale shall have the right to possession
until the end of the lease term, and all rights and obligations under
the lease shall survive foreclosure, except that the tenancy may be
terminated upon 90 days' written notice to quit pursuant to
subdivision (a) if any of the following conditions apply:
   (1) The purchaser or successor in interest will occupy the housing
unit as a primary residence.
   (2) The lessee is the mortgagor or the child, spouse, or parent of
the mortgagor.
   (3) The lease was not the result of an arms' length transaction.
   (4) The lease requires the receipt of rent that is substantially
less than fair market rent for the property, except when rent is
reduced or subsidized due to a federal, state, or local subsidy or
law.
   (c) The purchaser or successor in interest shall bear the burden
of proof in establishing that a fixed-term residential lease is not
entitled to protection under subdivision (b).
   (d) This section shall not apply if any party to the note remains
in the property as a tenant, subtenant, or occupant.
   (e) Nothing in this section is intended to affect any local just
cause eviction ordinance. This section does not, and shall not be
construed to, affect the authority of a public entity that otherwise
exists to regulate or monitor the basis for eviction.
   (f) This section shall remain in effect only until December 31,
2019, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before December 31, 2019, deletes or extends
that date.

1161c.  (a) In the case of any foreclosure on a residential
property, the immediate successor in interest in the property
pursuant to the foreclosure shall attach a cover sheet, in the form
as set forth in subdivision (b), to any notice of termination of
tenancy served on a tenant of that property within the first year
after the foreclosure sale. This notice shall not be required if any
of the following apply:
   (1) The tenancy is terminated pursuant to Section 1161.
   (2) The successor in interest and the tenant have executed a
written rental agreement or lease or a written acknowledgment of a
preexisting rental agreement or lease.
   (3) The tenant receiving the notice was not a tenant at the time
of the foreclosure.
   (b) The cover sheet shall consist of the following notice, in at
least 12-point type:

   Notice to Any Renters Living At
   [street address of the unit]
   The attached notice means that your home was recently sold in
foreclosure and the new owner plans to evict you.
   You should talk to a lawyer NOW to see what your rights are. You
may receive court papers in a few days. If your name is on the papers
it may hurt your credit if you do not respond and simply move out.
   Also, if you do not respond within five days of receiving the
papers, even if you are not named in the papers, you will likely lose
any rights you may have. In some cases, you can respond without
hurting your credit. You should ask a lawyer about it.
   You may have the right to stay in your home for 90 days or longer,
regardless of any deadlines stated on any attached papers. In some
cases and in some cities with a "just cause for eviction law," you
may not have to move at all. But you must take the proper legal steps
in order to protect your rights.
   How to Get Legal Help
   If you cannot afford an attorney, you may be eligible for free
legal services from a nonprofit legal services program. You can
locate these nonprofit groups at the California Legal Services
Internet Web site (www.lawhelpca.org), the California Courts Online
Self-Help Center (www.courtinfo.ca.gov/selfhelp), or by contacting
your local court or county bar association.

   (c) If the notice to quit specifies an effective date of at least
90 days after the notice is served, without qualification, no cover
sheet shall be required, provided that the notice incorporates the
text of the cover sheet, as set forth in subdivision (b) in at least
10-point type. The incorporated text shall omit the caption and the
first paragraph of the cover sheet and the fourth paragraph of the
cover sheet shall be replaced by the following language:

   You may have the right to stay in your home for longer than 90
days. If you have a lease that ends more than 90 days from now, the
new owner must honor the lease under many circumstances. Also, in
some cases and in some cities with a "just cause for eviction law,"
you may not have to move at all. But you must take the proper legal
steps in order to protect your rights.

   (d) This section shall remain in effect only until December 31,
2019, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before December 31, 2019, deletes or extends
that date.

1162.  (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), the notices
required by Sections 1161 and 1161a may be served by any of the
following methods:
   (1) By delivering a copy to the tenant personally.
   (2) If he or she is absent from his or her place of residence, and
from his or her usual place of business, by leaving a copy with some
person of suitable age and discretion at either place, and sending a
copy through the mail addressed to the tenant at his or her place of
residence.
   (3) If such place of residence and business cannot be ascertained,
or a person of suitable age or discretion there can not be found,
then by affixing a copy in a conspicuous place on the property, and
also delivering a copy to a person there residing, if such person can
be found; and also sending a copy through the mail addressed to the
tenant at the place where the property is situated. Service upon a
subtenant may be made in the same manner.
   (b) The notices required by Section 1161 may be served upon a
commercial tenant by any of the following methods:
   (1) By delivering a copy to the tenant personally.
   (2) If he or she is absent from the commercial rental property, by
leaving a copy with some person of suitable age and discretion at
the property, and sending a copy through the mail addressed to the
tenant at the address where the property is situated.
   (3) If, at the time of attempted service, a person of suitable age
or discretion is not found at the rental property through the
exercise of reasonable diligence, then by affixing a copy in a
conspicuous place on the property, and also sending a copy through
the mail addressed to the tenant at the address where the property is
situated. Service upon a subtenant may be made in the same manner.
   (c) For purposes of subdivision (b), "commercial tenant" means a
person or entity that hires any real property in this state that is
not a dwelling unit, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 1940 of
the Civil Code, or a mobilehome, as defined in Section 798.3 of the
Civil Code.

1162a.  In any case in which service or exhibition of a receiver's
or levying officer's deed is required, in lieu thereof service of a
copy or copies of the deed may be made as provided in Section 1162.

1164.  No person other than the tenant of the premises and
subtenant, if there be one, in the actual occupation of the premises
when the complaint is filed, need be made parties defendant in the
proceeding, nor shall any proceeding abate, nor the plaintiff be
nonsuited for the nonjoinder of any person who might have been made
party defendant, but when it appears that any of the parties served
with process, or appearing in the proceeding, are guilty of the
offense charged, judgment must be rendered against him or her. In
case a defendant has become a subtenant of the premises in
controversy, after the service of the notice provided for by
subdivision 2 of Section 1161 of this code, upon the tenant of the
premises, the fact that such notice was not served on each subtenant
shall constitute no defense to the action. All persons who enter the
premises under the tenant, after the commencement of the suit, shall
be bound by the judgment, the same as if he or they had been made
party to the action.

1165.  Except as provided in the preceding section, the provisions
of Part II of this Code, relating to parties to civil actions, are
applicable to this proceeding.

1166.  (a) The complaint shall:
   (1) Be verified and include the typed or printed name of the
person verifying the complaint.
   (2) Set forth the facts on which the plaintiff seeks to recover.
   (3) Describe the premises with reasonable certainty.
   (4) If the action is based on paragraph (2) of Section 1161, state
the amount of rent in default.
   (5) State specifically the method used to serve the defendant with
the notice or notices of termination upon which the complaint is
based. This requirement may be satisfied by using and completing all
items relating to service of the notice or notices in an appropriate
Judicial Council form complaint, or by attaching a proof of service
of the notice or notices of termination served on the defendant.
   (b) The complaint may set forth any circumstances of fraud, force,
or violence that may have accompanied the alleged forcible entry or
forcible or unlawful detainer, and claim damages therefor.
   (c) In an action regarding residential real property based on
Section 1161a, the plaintiff shall state in the caption of the
complaint "Action based on Code of Civil Procedure Section 1161a."
   (d) (1) In an action regarding residential property, the plaintiff
shall attach to the complaint the following:
   (A) A copy of the notice or notices of termination served on the
defendant upon which the complaint is based.
   (B) A copy of any written lease or rental agreement regarding the
premises. Any addenda or attachments to the lease or written
agreement that form the basis of the complaint shall also be
attached. The documents required by this subparagraph are not
required to be attached if the complaint alleges any of the
following:
   (i) The lease or rental agreement is oral.
   (ii) A written lease or rental agreement regarding the premises is
not in the possession of the landlord or any agent or employee of
the landlord.
   (iii) An action based solely on subdivision (2) of Section 1161.
   (2) If the plaintiff fails to attach the documents required by
this subdivision, the court shall grant leave to amend the complaint
for a five-day period in order to include the required attachments.
   (e) Upon filing the complaint, a summons shall be issued thereon.

1166a.  (a) Upon filing the complaint, the plaintiff may, upon
motion, have immediate possession of the premises by a writ of
possession of a manufactured home, mobilehome, or real property
issued by the court and directed to the sheriff of the county or
marshal, for execution, where it appears to the satisfaction of the
court, after a hearing on the motion, from the verified complaint and
from any affidavits filed or oral testimony given by or on behalf of
the parties, that the defendant resides out of state, has departed
from the state, cannot, after due diligence, be found within the
state, or has concealed himself or herself to avoid the service of
summons. The motion shall indicate that the writ applies to all
tenants, subtenants, if any, named claimants, if any, and any other
occupants of the premises.
   (b) Written notice of the hearing on the motion shall be served on
the defendant by the plaintiff in accordance with the provisions of
Section 1011, and shall inform the defendant as follows: "You may
file affidavits on your own behalf with the court and may appear and
present testimony on your own behalf. However, if you fail to appear,
the plaintiff will apply to the court for a writ of possession of a
manufactured home, mobilehome, or real property."
   (c) The plaintiff shall file an undertaking in a sum that shall be
fixed and determined by the judge, to the effect that, if the
plaintiff fails to recover judgment against the defendant for the
possession of the premises or if the suit is dismissed, the plaintiff
will pay to the defendant those damages, not to exceed the amount
fixed in the undertaking, as may be sustained by the defendant by
reason of that dispossession under the writ of possession of a
manufactured home, mobilehome, or real property.
   (d) If, at the hearing on the motion, the findings of the court
are in favor of the plaintiff and against the defendant, an order
shall be entered for the immediate possession of the premises.
   (e) The order for the immediate possession of the premises may be
enforced as provided in Division 3 (commencing with Section 712.010)
of Title 9 of Part 2.
   (f) For the purposes of this section, references in Division 3
(commencing with Section 712.010) of Title 9 of Part 2 and in
subdivisions (e) to (m), inclusive, of Section 1174, to the "judgment
debtor" shall be deemed references to the defendant, to the
"judgment creditor" shall be deemed references to the plaintiff, and
to the "judgment of possession or sale of property" shall be deemed
references to an order for the immediate possession of the premises.

1167.  The summons shall be in the form specified in Section 412.20
except that when the defendant is served, the defendant's response
shall be filed within five days, including Saturdays and Sundays but
excluding all other judicial holidays, after the complaint is served
upon him or her. If the last day for filing the response falls on a
Saturday or Sunday, the response period shall be extended to and
including the next court day.
   In all other respects the summons shall be issued and served and
returned in the same manner as a summons in a civil action.

1167.3.  In any action under this chapter, unless otherwise ordered
by the court for good cause shown, the time allowed the defendant to
answer the complaint, answer the complaint, if amended, or amend the
answer under paragraph (2), (3), (5), (6), or (7) of subdivision (a)
of Section 586 shall not exceed five days.

1167.4.  Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any action
under this chapter:
   (a) Where the defendant files a notice of motion as provided for
in subdivision (a) of Section 418.10, the time for making the motion
shall be not less than three days nor more than seven days after the
filing of the notice.
   (b) The service and filing of a notice of motion under subdivision
(a) shall extend the defendant's time to plead until five days after
service upon him of the written notice of entry of an order denying
his motion, except that for good cause shown the court may extend the
defendant's time to plead for an additional period not exceeding 15
days.

1167.5.  Unless otherwise ordered by the court for good cause shown,
no extension of time allowed in any action under this chapter for
the causes specified in Section 1054 shall exceed 10 days without the
consent of the adverse party.

1169.  If, at the time appointed, any defendant served with a
summons does not appear and defend, the clerk, upon written
application of the plaintiff and proof of the service of summons and
complaint, shall enter the default of any defendant so served, and,
if requested by the plaintiff, immediately shall enter judgment for
restitution of the premises and shall issue a writ of execution
thereon. The application for default judgment and the default
judgment shall include a place to indicate that the judgment includes
tenants, subtenants, if any, named claimants, if any, and any other
occupants of the premises. Thereafter, the plaintiff may apply to the
court for any other relief demanded in the complaint, including the
costs, against the defendant, or defendants, or against one or more
of the defendants.

1170.  On or before the day fixed for his appearance, the defendant
may appear and answer or demur.

1170.5.  (a) If the defendant appears pursuant to Section 1170,
trial of the proceeding shall be held not later than the 20th day
following the date that the request to set the time of the trial is
made. Judgment shall be entered thereon and, if the plaintiff
prevails, a writ of execution shall be issued immediately by the
court upon the request of the plaintiff.
   (b) The court may extend the period for trial upon the agreement
of all of the parties. No other extension of the time for trial of an
action under this chapter may be granted unless the court, upon its
own motion or on motion of any party, holds a hearing and renders a
decision thereon as specified in subdivision (c).
   (c) If trial is not held within the time specified in this
section, the court, upon finding that there is a reasonable
probability that the plaintiff will prevail in the action, shall
determine the amount of damages, if any, to be suffered by the
plaintiff by reason of the extension, and shall issue an order
requiring the defendant to pay that amount into court as the rent
would have otherwise become due and payable or into an escrow
designated by the court for so long as the defendant remains in
possession pending the termination of the action.
   The determination of the amount of the payment shall be based on
the plaintiff's verified statement of the contract rent for rental
payment, any verified objection thereto filed by the defendant, and
the oral or demonstrative evidence presented at the hearing. The
court's determination of the amount of damages shall include
consideration of any evidence, presented by the parties, embracing
the issue of diminution of value or any set off permitted by law.
   (d) If the defendant fails to make a payment ordered by the court,
trial of the action shall be held within 15 days of the date payment
was due.
   (e) Any cost for administration of an escrow account pursuant to
this section shall be recoverable by the prevailing party as part of
any recoverable cost in the action.
   (f) After trial of the action, the court shall determine the
distribution of the payment made into court or the escrow designated
by the court.
   (g) Where payments into court or the escrow designated by the
court are made pursuant to this section, the court may order that the
payments be invested in an insured interest-bearing account.
Interest on the account shall be allocated to the parties in the same
proportions as the original funds are allocated.
   (h) If any provision of this section or the application thereof to
any person or circumstances is held invalid, such invalidity shall
not affect other provisions or applications of the section which can
be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to
this end the provisions of this section are severable.
   (i) Nothing in this section shall be construed to abrogate or
interfere with the precedence given to the trial of criminal cases
over the trial of civil matters by Section 1050 of the Penal Code.

1170.7.  A motion for summary judgment may be made at any time after
the answer is filed upon giving five days notice. Summary judgment
shall be granted or denied on the same basis as a motion under
Section 437c.

1170.8.  In any action under this chapter, a discovery motion may be
made at any time upon giving five days' notice.

1170.9.  The Judicial Council shall adopt rules, not inconsistent
with statute, prescribing the time for filing and serving opposition
and reply papers, if any, relating to a motion under Section 1167.4,
1170.7, or 1170.8.

1171.  Whenever an issue of fact is presented by the pleadings, it
must be tried by a jury, unless such jury be waived as in other
cases. The jury shall be formed in the same manner as other trial
juries in an action of the same jurisdictional classification in the
Court in which the action is pending.

1172.  On the trial of any proceeding for any forcible entry or
forcible detainer, the plaintiff shall only be required to show, in
addition to the forcible entry or forcible detainer complained of,
that he was peaceably in the actual possession at the time of the
forcible entry, or was entitled to the possession at the time of the
forcible detainer. The defendant may show in his defense that he or
his ancestors, or those whose interest in such premises he claims,
have been in the quiet possession thereof for the space of one whole
year together next before the commencement of the proceedings, and
that his interest therein is not then ended or determined; and such
showing is a bar to the proceedings.

1173.  When, upon the trial of any proceeding under this chapter, it
appears from the evidence that the defendant has been guilty of
either a forcible entry or a forcible or unlawful detainer, and other
than the offense charged in the complaint, the Judge must order that
such complaint be forthwith amended to conform to such proofs; such
amendment must be made without any imposition of terms. No
continuance shall be permitted upon account of such amendment unless
the defendant, by affidavit filed, shows to the satisfaction of the
Court good cause therefor.

1174.  (a) If upon the trial, the verdict of the jury, or, if the
case be tried without a jury, the findings of the court be in favor
of the plaintiff and against the defendant, judgment shall be entered
for the possession of the premises; and if the proceedings be for an
unlawful detainer after neglect, or failure to perform the
conditions or covenants of the lease or agreement under which the
property is held, or after default in the payment of rent, the
judgment shall also declare the forfeiture of that lease or agreement
if the notice required by Section 1161 states the election of the
landlord to declare the forfeiture thereof, but if that notice does
not so state that election, the lease or agreement shall not be
forfeited.
   Except as provided in Section 1166a, in any action for unlawful
detainer brought by a petroleum distributor against a gasoline
dealer, possession shall not be restored to the petroleum distributor
unless the court in the unlawful detainer action determines that the
petroleum distributor had good cause under Section 20999.1 of the
Business and Professions Code to terminate, cancel, or refuse to
renew the franchise of the gasoline dealer.
   In any action for unlawful detainer brought by a petroleum
distributor against the gasoline dealer, the court may, at the time
of request of either party, require the tenant to make rental
payments into the court, for the lessor, at the contract rate,
pending the resolution of the action.
   (b) The jury or the court, if the proceedings be tried without a
jury, shall also assess the damages occasioned to the plaintiff by
any forcible entry, or by any forcible or unlawful detainer, alleged
in the complaint and proved on the trial, and find the amount of any
rent due, if the alleged unlawful detainer be after default in the
payment of rent. If the defendant is found guilty of forcible entry,
or forcible or unlawful detainer, and malice is shown, the plaintiff
may be awarded statutory damages of up to six hundred dollars ($600),
in addition to actual damages, including rent found due. The trier
of fact shall determine whether actual damages, statutory damages, or
both, shall be awarded, and judgment shall be entered accordingly.
   (c) When the proceeding is for an unlawful detainer after default
in the payment of rent, and the lease or agreement under which the
rent is payable has not by its terms expired, and the notice required
by Section 1161 has not stated the election of the landlord to
declare the forfeiture thereof, the court may, and, if the lease or
agreement is in writing, is for a term of more than one year, and
does not contain a forfeiture clause, shall order that a writ shall
not be issued to enforce the judgment until the expiration of five
days after the entry of the judgment, within which time the tenant,
or any subtenant, or any mortgagee of the term, or any other party
interested in its continuance, may pay into the court, for the
landlord, the amount found due as rent, with interest thereon, and
the amount of the damages found by the jury or the court for the
unlawful detainer, and the costs of the proceedings, and thereupon
the judgment shall be satisfied and the tenant be restored to the
tenant's estate. If payment as provided in this subdivision is not
made within five days, the judgment may be enforced for its full
amount and for the possession of the premises. In all other cases the
judgment may be enforced immediately.
   (d) Subject to subdivision (c), the judgment for possession of the
premises may be enforced as provided in Division 3 (commencing with
Section 712.010) of Title 9 of Part 2.
   (e) Personal property remaining on the premises which the landlord
reasonably believes to have been lost shall be disposed of pursuant
to Article 1 (commencing with Section 2080) of Chapter 4 of Title 6
of Part 4 of Division 3 of the Civil Code. The landlord is not liable
to the owner of any property which is disposed of in this manner. If
the appropriate police or sheriff's department refuses to accept
that property, it shall be deemed not to have been lost for the
purposes of this subdivision.
   (f) The landlord shall give notice pursuant to Section 1983 of the
Civil Code to any person (other than the tenant) reasonably believed
by the landlord to be the owner of personal property remaining on
the premises unless the procedure for surrender of property under
Section 1965 of the Civil Code has been initiated or completed.
   (g) The landlord shall store the personal property in a place of
safekeeping until it is either released pursuant to subdivision (h)
or disposed of pursuant to subdivision (i).
   (h) The landlord shall release the personal property pursuant to
Section 1965 of the Civil Code or shall release it to the tenant or,
at the landlord's option, to a person reasonably believed by the
landlord to be its owner if the tenant or other person pays the costs
of storage as provided in Section 1990 of the Civil Code and claims
the property not later than the date specified in the writ of
possession before which the tenant must make his or her claim or the
date specified in the notice before which a person other than the
tenant must make his or her claim.
   (i) Personal property not released pursuant to subdivision (h)
shall be disposed of pursuant to Section 1988 of the Civil Code.
   (j) Where the landlord releases personal property to the tenant
pursuant to subdivision (h), the landlord is not liable with respect
to that property to any person.
   (k) Where the landlord releases personal property pursuant to
subdivision (h) to a person (other than the tenant) reasonably
believed by the landlord to be its owner, the landlord is not liable
with respect to that property to:
   (1) The tenant or to any person to whom notice was given pursuant
to subdivision (f); or
   (2) Any other person, unless that person proves that, prior to
releasing the property, the landlord believed or reasonably should
have believed that the person had an interest in the property and
also that the landlord knew or should have known upon reasonable
investigation the address of that person.
   (l) Where personal property is disposed of pursuant to Section
1988 of the Civil Code, the landlord is not liable with respect to
that property to:
   (1) The tenant or to any person to whom notice was given pursuant
to subdivision (f); or
   (2) Any other person, unless that person proves that, prior to
disposing of the property pursuant to Section 1988 of the Civil Code,
the landlord believed or reasonably should have believed that the
person had an interest in the property and also that the landlord
knew or should have known upon reasonable investigation the address
of that person.
   (m) For the purposes of subdivisions (e), (f), (h), (k), and (l),
the terms "owner," "premises," and "reasonable belief" have the same
meaning as provided in Section 1980 of the Civil Code.

1174.2.  (a) In an unlawful detainer proceeding involving
residential premises after default in payment of rent and in which
the tenant has raised as an affirmative defense a breach of the
landlord's obligations under Section 1941 of the Civil Code or of any
warranty of habitability, the court shall determine whether a
substantial breach of these obligations has occurred. If the court
finds that a substantial breach has occurred, the court (1) shall
determine the reasonable rental value of the premises in its
untenantable state to the date of trial, (2) shall deny possession to
the landlord and adjudge the tenant to be the prevailing party,
conditioned upon the payment by the tenant of the rent that has
accrued to the date of the trial as adjusted pursuant to this
subdivision within a reasonable period of time not exceeding five
days, from the date of the court's judgment or, if service of the
court's judgment is made by mail, the payment shall be made within
the time set forth in Section 1013, (3) may order the landlord to
make repairs and correct the conditions which constitute a breach of
the landlord's obligations, (4) shall order that the monthly rent be
limited to the reasonable rental value of the premises as determined
pursuant to this subdivision until repairs are completed, and (5)
except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b), shall award the
tenant costs and attorneys' fees if provided by, and pursuant to, any
statute or the contract of the parties. If the court orders repairs
or corrections, or both, pursuant to paragraph (3), the court's
jurisdiction continues over the matter for the purpose of ensuring
compliance. The court shall, however, award possession of the
premises to the landlord if the tenant fails to pay all rent accrued
to the date of trial, as determined due in the judgment, within the
period prescribed by the court pursuant to this subdivision. The
tenant shall, however, retain any rights conferred by Section 1174.
   (b) If the court determines that there has been no substantial
breach of Section 1941 of the Civil Code or of any warranty of
habitability by the landlord or if the tenant fails to pay all rent
accrued to the date of trial, as required by the court pursuant to
subdivision (a), then judgment shall be entered in favor of the
landlord, and the landlord shall be the prevailing party for the
purposes of awarding costs or attorneys' fees pursuant to any statute
or the contract of the parties.
   (c) As used in this section, "substantial breach" means the
failure of the landlord to comply with applicable building and
housing code standards which materially affect health and safety.
   (d) Nothing in this section is intended to deny the tenant the
right to a trial by jury. Nothing in this section shall limit or
supersede any provision of Chapter 12.75 (commencing with Section
7060) of Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code.

1174.21.  A landlord who institutes an unlawful detainer proceeding
based upon a tenant's nonpayment of rent, and who is liable for a
violation of Section 1942.4 of the Civil Code, shall be liable to the
tenant or lessee for reasonable attorneys' fees and costs of the
suit, in an amount to be fixed by the court.

1174.25.  (a) Any occupant who is served with a prejudgment claim of
right to possession in accordance with Section 415.46 may file a
claim as prescribed in Section 415.46, with the court within 10 days
of the date of service of the prejudgment claim to right of
possession as shown on the return of service, which period shall
include Saturday and Sunday but excluding all other judicial
holidays. If the last day for filing the claim falls on a Saturday or
Sunday, the filing period shall be extended to and including the
next court day. Filing the prejudgment claim of right to possession
shall constitute a general appearance for which a fee shall be
collected as provided in Section 70614 of the Government Code.
Section 68511.3 of the Government Code applies to the prejudgment
claim of right to possession.
   (b) At the time of filing, the claimant shall be added as a
defendant in the action for unlawful detainer and the clerk shall
notify the plaintiff that the claimant has been added as a defendant
in the action by mailing a copy of the claim filed with the court to
the plaintiff with a notation so indicating. The claimant shall
answer or otherwise respond to the summons and complaint within five
days, including Saturdays and Sundays but excluding all other
judicial holidays, after filing the prejudgment claim of possession.
Thereafter, the name of the claimant shall be added to any pleading,
filing or form filed in the action for unlawful detainer.

1174.3.  (a) Unless a prejudgment claim of right to possession has
been served upon occupants in accordance with Section 415.46, any
occupant not named in the judgment for possession who occupied the
premises on the date of the filing of the action may object to
enforcement of the judgment against that occupant by filing a claim
of right to possession as prescribed in this section. A claim of
right to possession may be filed at any time after service or posting
of the writ of possession pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) of
Section 715.020, up to and including the time at which the levying
officer returns to effect the eviction of those named in the judgment
of possession. Filing the claim of right to possession shall
constitute a general appearance for which a fee shall be collected as
provided in Section 70614 of the Government Code. Section 68511.3 of
the Government Code applies to the claim of right to possession. An
occupant or tenant who is named in the action shall not be required
to file a claim of right to possession to protect that occupant's
right to possession of the premises.
   (b) The court issuing the writ of possession of real property
shall set a date or dates when the court will hold a hearing to
determine the validity of objections to enforcement of the judgment
specified in subdivision (a). An occupant of the real property for
which the writ is issued may make an objection to eviction to the
levying officer at the office of the levying officer or at the
premises at the time of the eviction.
   If a claim of right to possession is completed and presented to
the sheriff, marshal, or other levying officer, the officer shall
forthwith (1) stop the eviction of occupants at the premises, and (2)
provide a receipt or copy of the completed claim of right of
possession to the claimant indicating the date and time the completed
form was received, and (3) deliver the original completed claim of
right to possession to the court issuing the writ of possession of
real property.
   (c) A claim of right to possession is effected by any of the
following:
   (1) Presenting a completed claim form in person with
identification to the sheriff, marshal, or other levying officer as
prescribed in this section, and delivering to the court within two
court days after its presentation, an amount equal to 15 days' rent
together with the appropriate fee or form for proceeding in forma
pauperis. Upon receipt of a claim of right to possession, the
sheriff, marshal, or other levying officer shall indicate thereon the
date and time of its receipt and forthwith deliver the original to
the issuing court and a receipt or copy of the claim to the claimant
and notify the plaintiff of that fact. Immediately upon receipt of an
amount equal to 15 days' rent and the appropriate fee or form for
proceeding in forma pauperis, the court shall file the claim of right
to possession and serve an endorsed copy with the notice of the
hearing date on the plaintiff and the claimant by first-class mail.
The court issuing the writ of possession shall set and hold a hearing
on the claim not less than five nor more than 15 days after the
claim is filed with the court.
   (2) Presenting a completed claim form in person with
identification to the sheriff, marshal, or other levying officer as
prescribed in this section, and delivering to the court within two
court days after its presentation, the appropriate fee or form for
proceeding in forma pauperis without delivering the amount equivalent
to 15 days' rent. In this case, the court shall immediately set a
hearing on the claim to be held on the fifth day after the filing is
completed. The court shall notify the claimant of the hearing date at
the time the claimant completes the filing by delivering to the
court the appropriate fee or form for proceeding in forma pauperis,
and shall notify the plaintiff of the hearing date by first-class
mail. Upon receipt of a claim of right to possession, the sheriff,
marshal, or other levying officer shall indicate thereon the date and
time of its receipt and forthwith deliver the original to the
issuing court and a receipt or copy of the claim to the claimant and
notify the plaintiff of that fact.
   (d) At the hearing, the court shall determine whether there is a
valid claim of possession by the claimant who filed the claim, and
the court shall consider all evidence produced at the hearing,
including, but not limited to, the information set forth in the
claim. The court may determine the claim to be valid or invalid based
upon the evidence presented at the hearing. The court shall
determine the claim to be invalid if the court determines that the
claimant is an invitee, licensee, guest, or trespasser. If the court
determines the claim is invalid, the court shall order the return to
the claimant of the amount of the 15 days' rent paid by the claimant,
if that amount was paid pursuant to paragraph (1) or (3) of
subdivision (c), less a pro rata amount for each day that enforcement
of the judgment was delayed by reason of making the claim of right
to possession, which pro rata amount shall be paid to the landlord.
If the court determines the claim is valid, the amount equal to 15
days' rent paid by the claimant shall be returned immediately to the
claimant.
   (e) If, upon hearing, the court determines that the claim is
valid, then the court shall order further proceedings as follows:
   (1) If the unlawful detainer is based upon a curable breach, and
the claimant was not previously served with a proper notice, if any
notice is required, then the required notice may at the plaintiff's
discretion be served on the claimant at the hearing or thereafter. If
the claimant does not cure the breach within the required time, then
a supplemental complaint may be filed and served on the claimant as
defendant if the plaintiff proceeds against the claimant in the same
action. For the purposes of this section only, service of the
required notice, if any notice is required, and of the supplemental
complaint may be made by first-class mail addressed to the claimant
at the subject premises or upon his or her attorney of record and, in
either case, Section 1013 shall otherwise apply. Further proceedings
on the merits of the claimant's continued right to possession after
service of the Summons and Supplemental Complaint as prescribed by
this subdivision shall be conducted pursuant to this chapter.
   (2) In all other cases, the court shall deem the unlawful detainer
Summons and Complaint to be amended on their faces to include the
claimant as defendant, service of the Summons and Complaint, as thus
amended, may at the plaintiff's discretion be made at the hearing or
thereafter, and the claimant thus named and served as a defendant in
the action shall answer or otherwise respond within five days
thereafter.
   (f) If a claim is made without delivery to the court of the
appropriate filing fee or a form for proceeding in forma pauperis, as
prescribed in this section, the claim shall be immediately deemed
denied and the court shall so order. Upon the denial of the claim,
the court shall immediately deliver an endorsed copy of the order to
the levying officer and shall serve an endorsed copy of the order on
the plaintiff and claimant by first-class mail.
   (g) If the claim of right to possession is denied pursuant to
subdivision (f), or if the claimant fails to appear at the hearing
or, upon hearing, if the court determines that there are no valid
claims, or if the claimant does not prevail at a trial on the merits
of the unlawful detainer action, the court shall order the levying
officer to proceed with enforcement of the original writ of
possession of real property as deemed amended to include the
claimant, which shall be effected within a reasonable time not to
exceed five days. Upon receipt of the court's order, the levying
officer shall enforce the writ of possession of real property against
any occupant or occupants.
   (h) The claim of right to possession shall be made on the
following form:

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

NOTICE OF INCOMPLETE TEXT: The Claim of Right to Possession form
appears in the hard-copy publication of the chaptered bill.
See Sec. 43 of Chapter 75, Statutes of 2005.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

1174.5.  A judgment in unlawful detainer declaring the forfeiture of
the lease or agreement under which real property is held shall not
relieve the lessee from liability pursuant to Section 1951.2 of the
Civil Code.

1176.  (a) An appeal taken by the defendant shall not automatically
stay proceedings upon the judgment. Petition for stay of the judgment
pending appeal shall first be directed to the judge before whom it
was rendered. Stay of judgment shall be granted when the court finds
that the moving party will suffer extreme hardship in the absence of
a stay and that the nonmoving party will not be irreparably injured
by its issuance. If the stay is denied by the trial court, the
defendant may forthwith file a petition for an extraordinary writ
with the appropriate appeals court. If the trial or appellate court
stays enforcement of the judgment, the court may condition the stay
on whatever conditions the court deems just, but in any case it shall
order the payment of the reasonable monthly rental value to the
court monthly in advance as rent would otherwise become due as a
condition of issuing the stay of enforcement. As used in this
subdivision, "reasonable rental value" means the contract rent unless
the rental value has been modified by the trial court in which case
that modified rental value shall be used.
   (b) A new cause of action on the same agreement for the rental of
real property shall not be barred because of an appeal by any party.

1177.  Except as otherwise provided in this Chapter the provisions
of Part II of this Code are applicable to, and constitute the rules
of practice in the proceedings mentioned in this Chapter.

1178.  The provisions of Part 2 of this code, relative to new trials
and appeals, except insofar as they are inconsistent with the
provisions of this chapter or with rules adopted by the Judicial
Council, apply to the proceedings mentioned in this chapter.

1179.  The court may relieve a tenant against a forfeiture of a
lease or rental agreement, whether written or oral, and whether or
not the tenancy has terminated, and restore him or her to his or her
former estate or tenancy, in case of hardship, as provided in Section
1174. The court has the discretion to relieve any person against
forfeiture on its own motion.
   An application for relief against forfeiture may be made at any
time prior to restoration of the premises to the landlord. The
application may be made by a tenant or subtenant, or a mortgagee of
the term, or any person interested in the continuance of the term. It
must be made upon petition, setting forth the facts upon which the
relief is sought, and be verified by the applicant. Notice of the
application, with a copy of the petition, must be served at least
five days prior to the hearing on the plaintiff in the judgment, who
may appear and contest the application. Alternatively, a person
appearing without an attorney may make the application orally, if the
plaintiff either is present and has an opportunity to contest the
application, or has been given ex parte notice of the hearing and the
purpose of the oral application. In no case shall the application or
motion be granted except on condition that full payment of rent due,
or full performance of conditions or covenants stipulated, so far as
the same is practicable, be made.

1179a.  In all proceedings brought to recover the possession of real
property pursuant to the provisions of this chapter all courts,
wherein such actions are or may hereafter be pending, shall give such
actions precedence over all other civil actions therein, except
actions to which special precedence is given by law, in the matter of
the setting the same for hearing or trial, and in hearing the same,
to the end that all such actions shall be quickly heard and
determined.


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 FIRST CAUSE OF ACTION Plaintiff alleges:

1.
[Capacity
and residence. See § 334.58(1}, 9 1.]

2.   [Plaintiff s former residence. See §
334.58[1], 9 2. ]

3.   [Fictitious name allegation, if
appropriate. See § 334.50(1}, 9 2. \

4.   On or about_______ [date], defendant landlord,___________ [name],

with the intent to terminate plaintiffs occupancy of the premises, did

willfully and maliciously, directly and indirectly,__________ [specify
action

proscribed by Civ. Code § 789.3(b), e.g., prevent plaintiff from gaining reasonable
access to the premises by changing the locks on all the doors without giving
plaintiff keys for the new locks].

5.
[Specify
length of time during which interference with occupancy of premises continued,
e.g.,
Plaintiff was prevented reasonable access to the premises for a period of seven days.]

6.  As a direct and proximate result of defendant’s actions, plaintiff has suffered and
is suffering general damages in the amount of $_____________________________________________

7.Plaintiff is entitled to statutory punitive damages under Civil Code Section 789.3(c) in
the amount of $100 for each day or part of a day that defendant remains in
violation of Civil Code Section 789.3(b) and in no event is plaintiff entitled
to less than $250 for each cause of action.

8.  Plaintiff is entitled to receive from defendant______________
[name]

punitive damages.

SECOND CAUSE OF ACTION Plaintiff alleges:

9.Plaintiff hereby incorporates Paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of his/her First
Cause of Action.

10.The written tenancy agreement mentioned above created a periodic estate in
plaintiffs favor in           [street address and city ], California.

11.  On or about_______ [date], defendant landlord,__________ [name],

willfully and maliciously trespassed on plaintiffs estate for the purpose of

________ [specify,
e.g.,
changing the locks on all the doors and windows


12.                                                   As
a direct and proximate result thereof, plaintiff has suffered general
damages in the amount of $———–

THIRD CAUSE OF ACTION
Plaintiff alleges:

13.Plaintiff
hereby incorporates Paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of his/her First Cause of Action.

14.On or about______ [date ], defendant landlord,__________ [name ],

with
the intent to terminate plaintiffs occupancy of the premises, did

willfully and maliciously, directly and indirectly,_________ [specify action

proscribed by Civ. Code § 789.3(b), e.g., prevent plaintiff from gaining reasonable
access to the premises by changing the locks on all the doors and windows
without giving plaintiff keys for the new locks].

[15. If
the landlord ceased interfering with plaintiffs use and occupancy of the
premises, specify when this occurred, e.g.,
Plaintiff received keys for

the new locks
from defendant landlord,__________ {name),
on or about

______ [date),
following a demand letter from plaintiffs attorney.]

[16. Specify
length of time during which interference with occupancy continued, e.g.,
Plaintiff
was prevented reasonable access to the premises

from_______
[date), to and including__________
[date), or a total of

________ [e.g.,
seven) days or fraction thereof.]

17.As a further direct and
proximate result of defendant’s actions,

plaintiff_________ [specify
loss or damages, e.g„
was forced to pay fines

for_________ [e.g.,
20)
library books which were overdue since he/she

could not gain
access to them to return them on the due date, all to his/her
special damage in the amount of $_______ 1.

18.  As a direct and proximate result of
defendant’s actions, plaintiff has suffered and is suffering damages in the
amount of $_________________________________________

19.  Plaintiff is entitled to statutory
punitive damages under Civil Code Section 789.3(c) in the amount of $100 for
each day or part of a day that defendant remains in violation of Civil Code
Section 789.3(b) and in no event is plaintiff entitled to less than $250 for
each cause of action.

20.  Plaintiff is entitled to receive from
defendant landlord,___________

[name ], punitive damages.

FOURTH CAUSE OF
ACTION
Plaintiff
alleges:

21.  Plaintiff hereby incorporates Paragraphs
1, 2, and 3 of his/her First Cause of Action; and Paragraphs 14,15,16, and 17
of his/her Third Cause of Action.

22.  Plaintiff is entitled to appropriate
injunctive relief during the pen­dency of this action under Civil Code Section
789.3(c) and without this injunctive relief will suffer irreparable injury in
that     [specify

facts that wUl constitute great and irreparable injury, e.g., plaintiff will continue to be without a home and
without access to his/her, personal possessions and will be forced to stay in a
motel and buy new personal possessions such as clothes and cooking utensils).
Plaintiff has no plain,

speedy, and adequate remedy at law because__________ [specify facts in

addition to those
previously alleged that tend to show the inadequacy of any legal remedy that plaintiff might pursue, e.g.,
it will be
impossible for
plaintiff
to determine the precise amount of damage that he/she will suffer if
defendant's conduct is not restrained].

WHEREFORE, Plaintiff prays for judgment as
follows:

1.
For
an order requiring defendant to show cause, if any he/she has, why he/she
should not be enjoined as hereinafter set forth, during the pendency of this
action;

2.
For a
temporary restraining order and preliminary injunction enjoin­ing defendant and
his/her agents, servants, and employees, and all per­sons acting under, in
concert with, or for defendant from         

[specify, e.g., interfering with plaintiffs reasonable
access to the premises by changing the locks].

3.
For
general damages on the First Cause of Action in the amount of

4.
For
punitive damages on the First Cause of Action.

5.
For
general damages on the Second Cause of Action in the amount of$         

6.
For
punitive damages on the Second Cause of Action.

7.
For
general damages on the Third Cause of Action in the amount of
$

8.
For
punitive damages on the Third Cause of Action.

9.
For
reasonable attorney’s fees as provided in Civil Code Section 789.3(d).

 

10.
For
costs of suit.

11.
For
such other and further relief as the court may deem just and proper and
according to equity.

___________________________ [firm
name, if any]

By:_______________________________ [signature]

________________________________ [typed
name]

Attorney
for Plaintiff





















Predatory Lending and Predatory Servicing together at last Jan 1, 2013 Civil Code §2924.12(b)

10 Dec

Predatory Lending are abusive practices used in the mortgage industry that strip borrowers of home equity and threaten families with bankruptcy and foreclosure.

Predatory Lending can be broken down into three categories: Mortgage Origination, Mortgage Servicing; and Mortgage Collection and Foreclosure.

Mortgage Origination is the process by which you obtain your home loan from a mortgage broker or a bank.

Predatory lending practices in Mortgage Origination include:
# Excessive points;
# Charging fees not allowed or for services not delivered;
# Charging more than once for the same fee
# Providing a low teaser rate that adjusts to a rate you cannot afford;
# Successively refinancing your loan of “flipping;”
# “Steering” you into a loan that is more profitable to the Mortgage Originator;
# Changing the loan terms at closing or “bait & switch;”
# Closing in a location where you cannot adequately review the documents;
# Serving alcohol prior to closing;
# Coaching you to put minimum income or assets on you loan so that you will qualify for a certain amount;
# Securing an inflated appraisal;
# Receiving a kickback in money or favors from a particular escrow, title, appraiser or other service provider;
# Promising they will refinance your mortgage before your payment resets to a higher amount;
# Having you sign blank documents;
# Forging documents and signatures;
# Changing documents after you have signed them; and
# Loans with prepayment penalties or balloon payments.

Mortgage Servicing is the process of collecting loan payments and credit your loan.

Predatory lending practices in Mortgage Servicing include:
# Not applying payments on time;
# Applying payments to “Suspense;”
# “Jamming” illegal or improper fees;
# Creating an escrow or impounds account not allowed by the documents;
# Force placing insurance when you have adequate coverage;
# Improperly reporting negative credit history;
# Failing to provide you a detailed loan history; and
# Refusing to return your calls or letters.
#

Mortgage Collection & Foreclosure is the process Lenders use when you pay off your loan or when you house is repossessed for non-payment

Predatory lending practices in Mortgage Collection & Foreclosure include:
# Producing a payoff statement that includes improper charges & fees;
# Foreclosing in the name of an entity that is not the true owner of the mortgage;
# Failing to provide Default Loan Servicing required by all Fannie Mae mortgages;
# Failing to follow due process in foreclosure;
# Fraud on the court;
# Failing to provide copies of all documents and assignments; and
# Refusing to adequately communicate with you.

Abuses by Mortgage Service Companies

Although predatory lending has received far more attention than abusive servicing, a significant percentage of consumer complaints over loans involve servicing, not origination. For example, the director of the Nevada Fair Housing Center testified that of the hundreds of complaints of predatory lending issues her office received in 2002, about 42 percent involved servicing once the loan was transferred

Abusive Mortgage Servicing Defined:

Abusive servicing occurs when a servicer, either through action or inaction, obtains or attempts to obtain unwarranted fees or other costs from borrowers, engages in unfair collection practices, or through its own improper behavior or inaction causes borrowers to be more likely to go into default or have their homes foreclosed. Abusive practices should be distinguished from appropriate actions that may harm borrowers, such as a servicer merely collecting appropriate late fees or foreclosing on borrowers who do not make their payments despite proper loss mitigation efforts. Servicing can be abusive either intentionally, when there is intent to obtain unwarranted fees, or negligently, when, for example, a servicer’s records are so disorganized that borrowers are regularly charged late fees even when mortgage payments were made on time.

Abusive servicing often happens to debtors who have filed a Chapter 13 Bankruptcy Plan and are in the process of making payments under the Plan. If you suspect that your mortgage servicer is abusing your relationship by charging unnecessary fees while you are paying off your Chapter 13 Plan, call us. We can help.

There is significant evidence that some Mortgage servicers have engaged in abusive behavior and that borrowers have frequently been the victims. Some servicers have engaged in practices that are not only detrimental to borrowers but also illegal Such abuse has been documented in court opinions and decisions, in the decisions and findings of ratings agencies, in litigation and settlements obtained by government agencies against prominent servicers, in congressional testimony, and in newspaper accounts of borrowers who claim to have been mistreated by servicers. The abusive servicing practices documented in these sources include improper foreclosure or attempted foreclosure, improper fees, improper forced-placed insurance, and improper use or oversight of escrow funds .

Civil Code §2924.12(b) Right to Sue Mortgage Servicers for Injunctive Relief, Damages, Treble Damages, and Right to Attorney’s Fees. : )

5 Dec

prohabition-images

H. Right to Sue Mortgage Servicers for Injunctive Relief, Damages, Treble Damages, and Right to Attorney’s Fees

2013 is going to be a good year

One of the most important provisions of the Act from a lender’s perspective is that it provides borrowers with the right to sue mortgage servicers for injunctive relief before the trustee’s deed upon sale has recorded, or if it has already recorded, to sue for actual economic damages, if the mortgage servicer has not corrected any “material” violation of certain enumerated portions of the Act before the trustee’s deed upon sale recorded. (Civil Code §2924.12(a).) In an area that will certainly open up a Pandora’s Box of litigation, the Act does not define what constitutes a “material” violation of the Act. If a court finds that the violation was intentional, reckless or willful, the court can award the borrower the greater of treble (triple) damages or $50,000. (Civil Code §2924.12(b).) Furthermore, a violation of the enumerated provisions of the Act is also deemed to be a violation of the licensing laws if committed by a person licensed as a consumer or commercial finance lender or broker, a residential mortgage lender or servicer, or a licensed real estate broker or salesman. (Civil Code §2924.12(d).) Lastly, in a one-sided attorney’s fee provision that only benefits borrowers, the court may award a borrower who obtains an injunction or receives an award of economic damages as a result of the violation of the Act their reasonable attorney’s fees and costs as the prevailing party. (Civil Code §2924.12(i).) This provides all the more reason for lenders and mortgage servicers to comply with the terms of the Act. This provision for the recovery by only the borrower of their reasonable attorney’s fees makes it more likely that borrowers will file litigation against mortgage lenders or servicers than they otherwise would. Compliance is the lender’s or mortgage servicer’s best defense to litigation under the Act.

Significantly for lenders, as long as the mortgage servicer remedies the material violation of the Act before the trustee’s deed upon sale has recorded, the Act specifically provides that the mortgage servicer shall not be liable under the Act for any violation or damages. (Civil Code §2924.12(b) & (c).) The Act also clarifies that signatories to the National Mortgage Settlement who are in compliance with the terms of that settlement, as they relate to the terms of the Act, will not face liability under the Act. (Civil Code §2924.12(g).

Improper foreclosure or attempted foreclosure

Because servicers can exact fees associated with foreclosures, such as attorneys’ fees, some servicers have attempted to foreclose on property even when borrowers are current on their payments or without giving borrowers enough time to repay or otherwise working with them on a repayment plan Furthermore, a speedy foreclosure may save servicers the cost of attempting other techniques that might have prevented the foreclosure.

Some servicers have been so brazen that they have regularly claimed to the courts that borrowers were in default so as to justify foreclosure, even though the borrowers were current on their payments. Other courts have also decried the frequent use of false statements to obtain relief from stay in order to foreclose on borrowers’ homes. For example, in Hart v. GMAC Mortgage Corporation, et al., 246 B.R. 709 (2000), even though the borrower had made the payments required of him by a forbearance agreement he had entered into with the servicer (GMAC Mortgage Corporation), it created a “negative suspense account” for moneys it had paid out, improperly charged the borrower an additional monthly sum to repay the negative suspense account, charged him late fees for failing to make the entire payment demanded, and began foreclosure proceedings.

Improper fees

Claiming that borrowers are in default when they are actually current allows servicers to charge unwarranted fees, either late fees or fees related to default and foreclosure. Servicers receive as a conventional fee a percentage of the total value of the loans they service, typically 25 basis points for prime loans and 50 basis points for subprime loans In addition, contracts typically provide that the servicer, not the trustee or investors, has the right to keep any and all late fees or fees associated with defaults. Servicers charge late fees not only because they act as a prod to coax borrowers into making payments on time, but also because borrowers who fail to make payments impose additional costs on servicers, which must then engage in loss mitigation to induce payment.

Such fees are a crucial part of servicers’ income. For example, one servicer’s CEO reportedly stated that extra fees, such as late fees, appeared to be paying for all of the operating costs of the company’s entire servicing department, leaving the conventional servicing fee almost completely profit The pressure to collect such fees appears to be higher on subprime servicers than on prime servicers:

Because borrowers typically cannot prove the exact date a payment was received, servicers can charge late fees even when they receive the payment on time Improper late fees may also be based on the loss of borrowers’ payments by servicers, their inability to track those payments accurately, or their failure to post payments in a timely fashion. In Ronemus v. FTB Mortgage Services, 201 B.R. 458 (1996), under a Chapter 13 bankruptcy plan, the borrowers had made all of their payments on time except for two; they received permission to pay these two late and paid late fees for the privilege. However, the servicer, FTB Mortgage Services, misapplied their payments, then began placing their payments into a suspense account and collecting unauthorized late fees. The servicer ignored several letters from the borrowers’ attorney attempting to clear up the matter, sent regular demands for late fees, and began harassing the borrowers with collection efforts. When the borrowers sued, the servicer submitted to the court an artificially inflated accounting of how much the borrowers owed.

Some servicers have sent out late notices even when they have received timely payments and even before the end of a borrower’s grace period Worse yet, a servicer might pocket the payment, such as an extra payment of principal, and never credit it to the borrower Late fees on timely payments are a common problem when borrowers are making mortgage payments through a bankruptcy plan

Moreover, some servicers have also added false fees and charges not authorized by law or contract to their monthly payment demands, relying on borrowers’ ignorance of the exact amount owed. They can collect such fees or other unwarranted claims by submitting inaccurate payoff demands when a borrower refinances or sells the house). Or they can place the borrowers’ monthly payments in a suspense account and then charge late fees even though they received the payment Worse yet, some servicers pyramid their late fees, applying a portion of the current payment to a previous late fee and then charging an additional late fee even though the borrower has made a timely and full payment for the new month Pyramiding late fees allows servicers to charge late fees month after month even though the borrower made only one late payment

Servicers can turn their fees into a profit center by sending inaccurate monthly payment demands, demanding unearned fees or charges not owed, or imposing fees higher than the expenses for a panoply of actions For example, some servicers take advantage of borrowers’ ignorance by charging fees, such as prepayment penalties, where the note does not provide for them Servicers have sometimes imposed a uniform set of fees over an entire pool of loans, disregarding the fact that some of the loan documents did not provide for those particular fees. Or they charge more for attorneys’, property inspection, or appraisal fees than were actually incurred. Some servicers may add a fee by conducting unnecessary property inspections, having an agent drive by even when the borrower is not in default, or conducting multiple inspections during a single period of default to charge the resulting multiple fees

The complexity of the terms of many loans makes it difficult for borrowers to discover whether they are being overcharged Moreover, servicers can frustrate any attempts to sort out which fees are genuine.

Improperly forced-placed insurance

Mortgage holders are entitled under the terms of the loan to require borrowers to carry homeowners’ insurance naming the holder as the payee in case of loss and to force-place insurance by buying policies for borrowers who fail to do so and charging them for the premiums However, some servicers have force-placed insurance even in cases where the borrower already had it and even provided evidence of it to the servicer Worse yet, servicers have charged for force-placed insurance without even purchasing it. Premiums for force-placed insurance are often inflated in that they provide protection in excess of what the loan.

Escrow Account Mismanagement

One of the benefits of servicing mortgages is controlling escrow accounts to pay for insurance, taxes, and the like and, in most states, keeping any interest earned on these accounts Borrowers have complained that servicers have failed to make tax or insurance payments when they were due or at all. The treasurer of the country’s second largest county estimated that this failure to make timely payments cost borrowers late fees of at least $2 million in that county over a two-year span, causing some to lose their homes. If servicers fail to make insurance payments and a policy lapses, borrowers may face much higher insurance costs even if they purchase their own, non-force-placed policy. Worse yet, borrowers may find themselves unable to buy insurance at all if they cannot find a new insurer willing to write them a policy

You can make a claim for mortgage service abuse, and often the court will award actual and punitive damages. If you think you have been a victim of mortgage service abuse, contact us. We can help you make a claim.

Many a client call me when its toooooo late however sometimes something can be done it would envolve an appeal and this application for a stay. Most likely you will have to pay the reasonable rental value till the case is decided. And … Yes we have had this motion granted. ex-parte-application-for-stay-of-judgment-or-unlawful-detainer3
When title to the property is still in dispute ie. the foreclosure was bad. They (the lender)did not comply with California civil code 2923.5 or 2923.6 or 2924. Or the didn’t possess the documents to foreclose ie. the original note. Or they did not possess a proper assignment 2932.5. at trial you will be ignored by the learned judge but if you file a Motion for Summary Judgmentevans sum ud
template notice of Motion for SJ
TEMPLATE Points and A for SJ Motion
templateDeclaration for SJ
TEMPLATEProposed Order on Motion for SJ
TEMPLATEStatement of Undisputed Facts
you can force the issue and if there is a case filed in the Unlimited jurisdiction Court the judge may be forced to consider title and or consolidate the case with the Unlimited Jurisdiction Case

BILL NUMBER: AB 278	CHAPTERED
	BILL TEXT

	CHAPTER  86
	FILED WITH SECRETARY OF STATE  JULY 11, 2012
	APPROVED BY GOVERNOR  JULY 11, 2012
	PASSED THE SENATE  JULY 2, 2012
	PASSED THE ASSEMBLY  JULY 2, 2012
	AMENDED IN SENATE  SEPTEMBER 1, 2011
	AMENDED IN SENATE  JUNE 23, 2011

INTRODUCED BY   Assembly Members Eng, Feuer, Mitchell, and John A.
Pérez
   (Principal coauthors: Assembly Members Davis, Carter, and Skinner)

   (Principal coauthors: Senators Leno, Evans, Calderon, Corbett,
DeSaulnier, Hancock, Pavley, and Steinberg)

                        FEBRUARY 8, 2011

   An act to amend and add Sections 2923.5 and 2923.6 of, to amend
and repeal Section 2924 of, to add Sections 2920.5, 2923.4, 2923.7,
2924.17, and 2924.20 to, to add and repeal Sections 2923.55, 2924.9,
2924.10, 2924.18, and 2924.19 of, and to add, repeal, and add
Sections 2924.11, 2924.12, and 2924.15 of, the Civil Code, relating
to mortgages.

	LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST

   AB 278, Eng. Mortgages and deeds of trust: foreclosure.
   (1) Existing law, until January 1, 2013, requires a mortgagee,
trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent to contact the borrower
prior to filing a notice of default to explore options for the
borrower to avoid foreclosure, as specified. Existing law requires a
notice of default or, in certain circumstances, a notice of sale, to
include a declaration stating that the mortgagee, trustee,
beneficiary, or authorized agent has contacted the borrower, or has
tried with due diligence to contact the borrower, or that no contact
was required for a specified reason.
   This bill would add mortgage servicers, as defined, to these
provisions and would extend the operation of these provisions
indefinitely, except that it would delete the requirement with
respect to a notice of sale. The bill would, until January 1, 2018,
additionally require the borrower, as defined, to be provided with
specified information in writing prior to recordation of a notice of
default and, in certain circumstances, within 5 business days after
recordation. The bill would prohibit a mortgage servicer, mortgagee,
trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent from recording a notice of
default or, until January 1, 2018, recording a notice of sale or
conducting a trustee's sale while a complete first lien loan
modification application is pending, under specified conditions. The
bill would, until January 1, 2018, establish additional procedures to
be followed regarding a first lien loan modification application,
the denial of an application, and a borrower's right to appeal a
denial.
   (2) Existing law imposes various requirements that must be
satisfied prior to exercising a power of sale under a mortgage or
deed of trust, including, among other things, recording a notice of
default and a notice of sale.
   The bill would, until January 1, 2018, require a written notice to
the borrower after the postponement of a foreclosure sale in order
to advise the borrower of any new sale date and time, as specified.
The bill would provide that an entity shall not record a notice of
default or otherwise initiate the foreclosure process unless it is
the holder of the beneficial interest under the deed of trust, the
original or substituted trustee, or the designated agent of the
holder of the beneficial interest, as specified.
   The bill would prohibit recordation of a notice of default or a
notice of sale or the conduct of a trustee's sale if a foreclosure
prevention alternative has been approved and certain conditions exist
and would, until January 1, 2018, require recordation of a
rescission of those notices upon execution of a permanent foreclosure
prevention alternative. The bill would, until January 1, 2018,
prohibit the collection of application fees and the collection of
late fees while a foreclosure prevention alternative is being
considered, if certain criteria are met, and would require a
subsequent mortgage servicer to honor any previously approved
foreclosure prevention alternative.
   The bill would authorize a borrower to seek an injunction and
damages for violations of certain of the provisions described above,
except as specified. The bill would authorize the greater of treble
actual damages or $50,000 in statutory damages if a violation of
certain provisions is found to be intentional or reckless or resulted
from willful misconduct, as specified. The bill would authorize the
awarding of attorneys' fees for prevailing borrowers, as specified.
Violations of these provisions by licensees of the Department of
Corporations, the Department of Financial Institutions, and the
Department of Real Estate would also be violations of those
respective licensing laws. Because a violation of certain of those
licensing laws is a crime, the bill would impose a state-mandated
local program.
   The bill would provide that the requirements imposed on mortgage
servicers, and mortgagees, trustees, beneficiaries, and authorized
agents, described above are applicable only to mortgages or deeds of
trust secured by residential real property not exceeding 4 dwelling
units that is owner-occupied, as defined, and, until January 1, 2018,
only to those entities who conduct more than 175 foreclosure sales
per year or annual reporting period, except as specified.
   The bill would require, upon request from a borrower who requests
a foreclosure prevention alternative, a mortgage servicer who
conducts more than 175 foreclosure sales per year or annual reporting
period to establish a single point of contact and provide the
borrower with one or more direct means of communication with the
single point of contact. The bill would specify various
responsibilities of the single point of contact. The bill would
define single point of contact for these purposes.
   (3) Existing law prescribes documents that may be recorded or
filed in court.
   This bill would require that a specified declaration, notice of
default, notice of sale, deed of trust, assignment of a deed of
trust, substitution of trustee, or declaration or affidavit filed in
any court relative to a foreclosure proceeding or recorded by or on
behalf of a mortgage servicer shall be accurate and complete and
supported by competent and reliable evidence. The bill would require
that before recording or filing any of those documents, a mortgage
servicer shall ensure that it has reviewed competent and reliable
evidence to substantiate the borrower's default and the right to
foreclose, including the borrower's loan status and loan information.
The bill would, until January 1, 2018, provide that any mortgage
servicer that engages in multiple and repeated violations of these
requirements shall be liable for a civil penalty of up to $7,500 per
mortgage or deed of trust, in an action brought by specified state
and local government entities, and would also authorize
administrative enforcement against licensees of the Department of
Corporations, the Department of Financial Institutions, and the
Department of Real Estate.
   The bill would authorize the Department of Corporations, the
Department of Financial Institutions, and the Department of Real
Estate to adopt regulations applicable to persons and entities under
their respective jurisdictions for purposes of the provisions
described above. The bill would provide that a violation of those
regulations would be enforceable only by the regulating agency.
   (4) The bill would state findings and declarations of the
Legislature in relation to foreclosures in the state generally, and
would state the purposes of the bill.
   (5) The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse
local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the
state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that
reimbursement.
   This bill would provide that no reimbursement is required by this
act for a specified reason.

THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA DO ENACT AS FOLLOWS:

  SECTION 1.  The Legislature finds and declares all of the
following:
   (a) California is still reeling from the economic impacts of a
wave of residential property foreclosures that began in 2007. From
2007 to 2011 alone, there were over 900,000 completed foreclosure
sales. In 2011, 38 of the top 100 hardest hit ZIP Codes in the nation
were in California, and the current wave of foreclosures continues
apace. All of this foreclosure activity has adversely affected
property values and resulted in less money for schools, public
safety, and other public services. In addition, according to the
Urban Institute, every foreclosure imposes significant costs on local
governments, including an estimated nineteen thousand two hundred
twenty-nine dollars ($19,229) in local government costs. And the
foreclosure crisis is not over; there remain more than two million
"underwater" mortgages in California.
   (b) It is essential to the economic health of this state to
mitigate the negative effects on the state and local economies and
the housing market that are the result of continued foreclosures by
modifying the foreclosure process to ensure that borrowers who may
qualify for a foreclosure alternative are considered for, and have a
meaningful opportunity to obtain, available loss mitigation options.
These changes to the state's foreclosure process are essential to
ensure that the current crisis is not worsened by unnecessarily
adding foreclosed properties to the market when an alternative to
foreclosure may be available. Avoiding foreclosure, where possible,
will help stabilize the state's housing market and avoid the
substantial, corresponding negative effects of foreclosures on
families, communities, and the state and local economy.
   (c) This act is necessary to provide stability to California's
statewide and regional economies and housing market by facilitating
opportunities for borrowers to pursue loss mitigation options.
  SEC. 2.  Section 2920.5 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2920.5.  For purposes of this article, the following definitions
apply:
   (a) "Mortgage servicer" means a person or entity who directly
services a loan, or who is responsible for interacting with the
borrower, managing the loan account on a daily basis including
collecting and crediting periodic loan payments, managing any escrow
account, or enforcing the note and security instrument, either as the
current owner of the promissory note or as the current owner's
authorized agent. "Mortgage servicer" also means a subservicing agent
to a master servicer by contract. "Mortgage servicer" shall not
include a trustee, or a trustee's authorized agent, acting under a
power of sale pursuant to a deed of trust.
   (b) "Foreclosure prevention alternative" means a first lien loan
modification or another available loss mitigation option.
   (c) (1) Unless otherwise provided and for purposes of Sections
2923.4, 2923.5, 2923.55, 2923.6, 2923.7, 2924.9, 2924.10, 2924.11,
2924.18, and 2924.19, "borrower" means any natural person who is a
mortgagor or trustor and who is potentially eligible for any federal,
state, or proprietary foreclosure prevention alternative program
offered by, or through, his or her mortgage servicer.
   (2) For purposes of the sections listed in paragraph (1),
"borrower" shall not include any of the following:
   (A) An individual who has surrendered the secured property as
evidenced by either a letter confirming the surrender or delivery of
the keys to the property to the mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or
authorized agent.
   (B) An individual who has contracted with an organization, person,
or entity whose primary business is advising people who have decided
to leave their homes on how to extend the foreclosure process and
avoid their contractual obligations to mortgagees or beneficiaries.
   (C) An individual who has filed a case under Chapter 7, 11, 12, or
13 of Title 11 of the United States Code and the bankruptcy court
has not entered an order closing or dismissing the bankruptcy case,
or granting relief from a stay of foreclosure.
   (d) "First lien" means the most senior mortgage or deed of trust
on the property that is the subject of the notice of default or
notice of sale.
  SEC. 3.  Section 2923.4 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2923.4.  (a) The purpose of the act that added this section is to
ensure that, as part of the nonjudicial foreclosure process,
borrowers are considered for, and have a meaningful opportunity to
obtain, available loss mitigation options, if any, offered by or
through the borrower's mortgage servicer, such as loan modifications
or other alternatives to foreclosure. Nothing in the act that added
this section, however, shall be interpreted to require a particular
result of that process.
   (b) Nothing in this article obviates or supersedes the obligations
of the signatories to the consent judgment entered in the case
entitled United States of America et al. v. Bank of America
Corporation et al., filed in the United States District Court for the
District of Columbia, case number 1:12-cv-00361 RMC.
  SEC. 4.  Section 2923.5 of the Civil Code is amended to read:
   2923.5.  (a) (1) A mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee,
beneficiary, or authorized agent may not record a notice of default
pursuant to Section 2924 until both of the following:
   (A) Either 30 days after initial contact is made as required by
paragraph (2) or 30 days after satisfying the due diligence
requirements as described in subdivision (e).
   (B) The mortgage servicer complies with paragraph (1) of
subdivision (a) of Section 2924.18, if the borrower has provided a
complete application as defined in subdivision (d) of Section
2924.18.
   (2) A mortgage servicer shall contact the borrower in person or by
telephone in order to assess the borrower's financial situation and
explore options for the borrower to avoid foreclosure. During the
initial contact, the mortgage servicer shall advise the borrower that
he or she has the right to request a subsequent meeting and, if
requested, the mortgage servicer shall schedule the meeting to occur
within 14 days. The assessment of the borrower's financial situation
and discussion of options may occur during the first contact, or at
the subsequent meeting scheduled for that purpose. In either case,
the borrower shall be provided the toll-free telephone number made
available by the United States Department of Housing and Urban
Development (HUD) to find a HUD-certified housing counseling agency.
Any meeting may occur telephonically.
   (b) A notice of default recorded pursuant to Section 2924 shall
include a declaration that the mortgage servicer has contacted the
borrower, has tried with due diligence to contact the borrower as
required by this section, or that no contact was required because the
individual did not meet the definition of "borrower" pursuant to
subdivision (c) of Section 2920.5.
   (c) A mortgage servicer's loss mitigation personnel may
participate by telephone during any contact required by this section.

    (d) A borrower may designate, with consent given in writing, a
HUD-certified housing counseling agency, attorney, or other adviser
to discuss with the mortgage servicer, on the borrower's behalf, the
borrower's financial situation and options for the borrower to avoid
foreclosure. That contact made at the direction of the borrower shall
satisfy the contact requirements of paragraph (2) of subdivision
(a). Any loan modification or workout plan offered at the meeting by
the mortgage servicer is subject to approval by the borrower.
    (e) A notice of default may be recorded pursuant to Section 2924
when a mortgage servicer has not contacted a borrower as required by
paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) provided that the failure to contact
the borrower occurred despite the due diligence of the mortgage
servicer. For purposes of this section, "due diligence" shall require
and mean all of the following:
   (1) A mortgage servicer shall first attempt to contact a borrower
by sending a first-class letter that includes the toll-free telephone
number made available by HUD to find a HUD-certified housing
counseling agency.
   (2) (A) After the letter has been sent, the mortgage servicer
shall attempt to contact the borrower by telephone at least three
times at different hours and on different days. Telephone calls shall
be made to the primary telephone number on file.
   (B) A mortgage servicer may attempt to contact a borrower using an
automated system to dial borrowers, provided that, if the telephone
call is answered, the call is connected to a live representative of
the mortgage servicer.
   (C) A mortgage servicer satisfies the telephone contact
requirements of this paragraph if it determines, after attempting
contact pursuant to this paragraph, that the borrower's primary
telephone number and secondary telephone number or numbers on file,
if any, have been disconnected.
   (3) If the borrower does not respond within two weeks after the
telephone call requirements of paragraph (2) have been satisfied, the
mortgage servicer shall then send a certified letter, with return
receipt requested.
   (4) The mortgage servicer shall provide a means for the borrower
to contact it in a timely manner, including a toll-free telephone
number that will provide access to a live representative during
business hours.
   (5) The mortgage servicer has posted a prominent link on the
homepage of its Internet Web site, if any, to the following
information:
   (A) Options that may be available to borrowers who are unable to
afford their mortgage payments and who wish to avoid foreclosure, and
instructions to borrowers advising them on steps to take to explore
those options.
   (B) A list of financial documents borrowers should collect and be
prepared to present to the mortgage servicer when discussing options
for avoiding foreclosure.
   (C) A toll-free telephone number for borrowers who wish to discuss
options for avoiding foreclosure with their mortgage servicer.
   (D) The toll-free telephone number made available by HUD to find a
HUD-certified housing counseling agency.
    (f) This section shall apply only to mortgages or deeds of trust
described in Section 2924.15.
   (g) This section shall apply only to entities described in
subdivision (b) of Section 2924.18.
    (h) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.
  SEC. 5.  Section 2923.5 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2923.5.  (a) (1) A mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee,
beneficiary, or authorized agent may not record a notice of default
pursuant to Section 2924 until both of the following:
   (A) Either 30 days after initial contact is made as required by
paragraph (2) or 30 days after satisfying the due diligence
requirements as described in subdivision (e).
   (B) The mortgage servicer complies with subdivision (a) of Section
2924.11, if the borrower has provided a complete application as
defined in subdivision (f) of Section 2924.11.
   (2) A mortgage servicer shall contact the borrower in person or by
telephone in order to assess the borrower's financial situation and
explore options for the borrower to avoid foreclosure. During the
initial contact, the mortgage servicer shall advise the borrower that
he or she has the right to request a subsequent meeting and, if
requested, the mortgage servicer shall schedule the meeting to occur
within 14 days. The assessment of the borrower's financial situation
and discussion of options may occur during the first contact, or at
the subsequent meeting scheduled for that purpose. In either case,
the borrower shall be provided the toll-free telephone number made
available by the United States Department of Housing and Urban
Development (HUD) to find a HUD-certified housing counseling agency.
Any meeting may occur telephonically.
   (b) A notice of default recorded pursuant to Section 2924 shall
include a declaration that the mortgage servicer has contacted the
borrower, has tried with due diligence to contact the borrower as
required by this section, or that no contact was required because the
individual did not meet the definition of "borrower" pursuant to
subdivision (c) of Section 2920.5.
   (c) A mortgage servicer's loss mitigation personnel may
participate by telephone during any contact required by this section.

   (d) A borrower may designate, with consent given in writing, a
HUD-certified housing counseling agency, attorney, or other adviser
to discuss with the mortgage servicer, on the borrower's behalf, the
borrower's financial situation and options for the borrower to avoid
foreclosure. That contact made at the direction of the borrower shall
satisfy the contact requirements of paragraph (2) of subdivision
(a). Any loan modification or workout plan offered at the meeting by
the mortgage servicer is subject to approval by the borrower.
   (e) A notice of default may be recorded pursuant to Section 2924
when a mortgage servicer has not contacted a borrower as required by
paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) provided that the failure to contact
the borrower occurred despite the due diligence of the mortgage
servicer. For purposes of this section, "due diligence" shall require
and mean all of the following:
   (1) A mortgage servicer shall first attempt to contact a borrower
by sending a first-class letter that includes the toll-free telephone
number made available by HUD to find a HUD-certified housing
counseling agency.
   (2) (A) After the letter has been sent, the mortgage servicer
shall attempt to contact the borrower by telephone at least three
times at different hours and on different days. Telephone calls shall
be made to the primary telephone number on file.
   (B) A mortgage servicer may attempt to contact a borrower using an
automated system to dial borrowers, provided that, if the telephone
call is answered, the call is connected to a live representative of
the mortgage servicer.
   (C) A mortgage servicer satisfies the telephone contact
requirements of this paragraph if it determines, after attempting
contact pursuant to this paragraph, that the borrower's primary
telephone number and secondary telephone number or numbers on file,
if any, have been disconnected.
   (3) If the borrower does not respond within two weeks after the
telephone call requirements of paragraph (2) have been satisfied, the
mortgage servicer shall then send a certified letter, with return
receipt requested.
   (4) The mortgage servicer shall provide a means for the borrower
to contact it in a timely manner, including a toll-free telephone
number that will provide access to a live representative during
business hours.
   (5) The mortgage servicer has posted a prominent link on the
homepage of its Internet Web site, if any, to the following
information:
   (A) Options that may be available to borrowers who are unable to
afford their mortgage payments and who wish to avoid foreclosure, and
instructions to borrowers advising them on steps to take to explore
those options.
   (B) A list of financial documents borrowers should collect and be
prepared to present to the mortgage servicer when discussing options
for avoiding foreclosure.
   (C) A toll-free telephone number for borrowers who wish to discuss
options for avoiding foreclosure with their mortgage servicer.
   (D) The toll-free telephone number made available by HUD to find a
HUD-certified housing counseling agency.
   (f) This section shall apply only to mortgages or deeds of trust
described in Section 2924.15.
   (g) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2018.
  SEC. 6.  Section 2923.55 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2923.55.  (a) A mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee,
beneficiary, or authorized agent may not record a notice of default
pursuant to Section 2924 until all of the following:
    (1) The mortgage servicer has satisfied the requirements of
paragraph (1) of subdivision (b).
   (2) Either 30 days after initial contact is made as required by
paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) or 30 days after satisfying the due
diligence requirements as described in subdivision (f).
   (3) The mortgage servicer complies with subdivision (c) of Section
2923.6, if the borrower has provided a complete application as
defined in subdivision (h) of Section 2923.6.
   (b) (1) As specified in subdivision (a), a mortgage servicer shall
send the following information in writing to the borrower:
   (A) A statement that if the borrower is a servicemember or a
dependent of a servicemember, he or she may be entitled to certain
protections under the federal Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (50
U.S.C. Sec. 501 et seq.) regarding the servicemember's interest rate
and the risk of foreclosure, and counseling for covered
servicemembers that is available at agencies such as Military
OneSource and Armed Forces Legal Assistance.
   (B) A statement that the borrower may request the following:
   (i) A copy of the borrower's promissory note or other evidence of
indebtedness.
   (ii) A copy of the borrower's deed of trust or mortgage.
   (iii) A copy of any assignment, if applicable, of the borrower's
mortgage or deed of trust required to demonstrate the right of the
mortgage servicer to foreclose.
   (iv) A copy of the borrower's payment history since the borrower
was last less than 60 days past due.
   (2) A mortgage servicer shall contact the borrower in person or by
telephone in order to assess the borrower's financial situation and
explore options for the borrower to avoid foreclosure. During the
initial contact, the mortgage servicer shall advise the borrower that
he or she has the right to request a subsequent meeting and, if
requested, the mortgage servicer shall schedule the meeting to occur
within 14 days. The assessment of the borrower's financial situation
and discussion of options may occur during the first contact, or at
the subsequent meeting scheduled for that purpose. In either case,
the borrower shall be provided the toll-free telephone number made
available by the United States Department of Housing and Urban
Development (HUD) to find a HUD-certified housing counseling agency.
Any meeting may occur telephonically.
   (c) A notice of default recorded pursuant to Section 2924 shall
include a declaration that the mortgage servicer has contacted the
borrower, has tried with due diligence to contact the borrower as
required by this section, or that no contact was required because the
individual did not meet the definition of "borrower" pursuant to
subdivision (c) of Section 2920.5.
   (d) A mortgage servicer's loss mitigation personnel may
participate by telephone during any contact required by this section.

   (e) A borrower may designate, with consent given in writing, a
HUD-certified housing counseling agency, attorney, or other adviser
to discuss with the mortgage servicer, on the borrower's behalf, the
borrower's financial situation and options for the borrower to avoid
foreclosure. That contact made at the direction of the borrower shall
satisfy the contact requirements of paragraph (2) of subdivision
(b). Any foreclosure prevention alternative offered at the meeting by
the mortgage servicer is subject to approval by the borrower.
   (f) A notice of default may be recorded pursuant to Section 2924
when a mortgage servicer has not contacted a borrower as required by
paragraph (2) of subdivision (b), provided that the failure to
contact the borrower occurred despite the due diligence of the
mortgage servicer. For purposes of this section, "due diligence"
shall require and mean all of the following:
   (1) A mortgage servicer shall first attempt to contact a borrower
by sending a first-class letter that includes the toll-free telephone
number made available by HUD to find a HUD-certified housing
counseling agency.
   (2) (A) After the letter has been sent, the mortgage servicer
shall attempt to contact the borrower by telephone at least three
times at different hours and on different days. Telephone calls shall
be made to the primary telephone number on file.
   (B) A mortgage servicer may attempt to contact a borrower using an
automated system to dial borrowers, provided that, if the telephone
call is answered, the call is connected to a live representative of
the mortgage servicer.
   (C) A mortgage servicer satisfies the telephone contact
requirements of this paragraph if it determines, after attempting
contact pursuant to this paragraph, that the borrower's primary
telephone number and secondary telephone number or numbers on file,
if any, have been disconnected.
   (3) If the borrower does not respond within two weeks after the
telephone call requirements of paragraph (2) have been satisfied, the
mortgage servicer shall then send a certified letter, with return
receipt requested, that includes the toll-free telephone number made
available by HUD to find a HUD-certified housing counseling agency.
   (4) The mortgage servicer shall provide a means for the borrower
to contact it in a timely manner, including a toll-free telephone
number that will provide access to a live representative during
business hours.
   (5) The mortgage servicer has posted a prominent link on the
homepage of its Internet Web site, if any, to the following
information:
   (A) Options that may be available to borrowers who are unable to
afford their mortgage payments and who wish to avoid foreclosure, and
instructions to borrowers advising them on steps to take to explore
those options.
   (B) A list of financial documents borrowers should collect and be
prepared to present to the mortgage servicer when discussing options
for avoiding foreclosure.
   (C) A toll-free telephone number for borrowers who wish to discuss
options for avoiding foreclosure with their mortgage servicer.
   (D) The toll-free telephone number made available by HUD to find a
HUD-certified housing counseling agency.
   (g) This section shall not apply to entities described in
subdivision (b) of Section 2924.18.
   (h) This section shall apply only to mortgages or deeds of trust
described in Section 2924.15.
   (i)  This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.
  SEC. 7.  Section 2923.6 of the Civil Code is amended to read:
   2923.6.  (a) The Legislature finds and declares that any duty that
mortgage servicers may have to maximize net present value under
their pooling and servicing agreements is owed to all parties in a
loan pool, or to all investors under a pooling and servicing
agreement, not to any particular party in the loan pool or investor
under a pooling and servicing agreement, and that a mortgage servicer
acts in the best interests of all parties to the loan pool or
investors in the pooling and servicing agreement if it agrees to or
implements a loan modification or workout plan for which both of the
following apply:
   (1) The loan is in payment default, or payment default is
reasonably foreseeable.
   (2) Anticipated recovery under the loan modification or workout
plan exceeds the anticipated recovery through foreclosure on a net
present value basis.
   (b) It is the intent of the Legislature that the mortgage servicer
offer the borrower a loan modification or workout plan if such a
modification or plan is consistent with its contractual or other
authority.
   (c) If a borrower submits a complete application for a first lien
loan modification offered by, or through, the borrower's mortgage
servicer, a mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or
authorized agent shall not record a notice of default or notice of
sale, or conduct a trustee's sale, while the complete first lien loan
modification application is pending. A mortgage servicer, mortgagee,
trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall not record a notice
of default or notice of sale or conduct a trustee's sale until any of
the following occurs:
   (1) The mortgage servicer makes a written determination that the
borrower is not eligible for a first lien loan modification, and any
appeal period pursuant to subdivision (d) has expired.
   (2) The borrower does not accept an offered first lien loan
modification within 14 days of the offer.
   (3) The borrower accepts a written first lien loan modification,
but defaults on, or otherwise breaches the borrower's obligations
under, the first lien loan modification.
   (d) If the borrower's application for a first lien loan
modification is denied, the borrower shall have at least 30 days from
the date of the written denial to appeal the denial and to provide
evidence that the mortgage servicer's determination was in error.
   (e) If the borrower's application for a first lien loan
modification is denied, the mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee,
beneficiary, or authorized agent shall not record a notice of default
or, if a notice of default has already been recorded, record a
notice of sale or conduct a trustee's sale until the later of:
   (1) Thirty-one days after the borrower is notified in writing of
the denial.
   (2) If the borrower appeals the denial pursuant to subdivision
(d), the later of 15 days after the denial of the appeal or 14 days
after a first lien loan modification is offered after appeal but
declined by the borrower, or, if a first lien loan modification is
offered and accepted after appeal, the date on which the borrower
fails to timely submit the first payment or otherwise breaches the
terms of the offer.
   (f) Following the denial of a first lien loan modification
application, the mortgage servicer shall send a written notice to the
borrower identifying the reasons for denial, including the
following:
   (1) The amount of time from the date of the denial letter in which
the borrower may request an appeal of the denial of the first lien
loan modification and instructions regarding how to appeal the
denial.
   (2) If the denial was based on investor disallowance, the specific
reasons for the investor disallowance.
   (3) If the denial is the result of a net present value
calculation, the monthly gross income and property value used to
calculate the net present value and a statement that the borrower may
obtain all of the inputs used in the net present value calculation
upon written request to the mortgage servicer.
   (4) If applicable, a finding that the borrower was previously
offered a first lien loan modification and failed to successfully
make payments under the terms of the modified loan.

         (5) If applicable, a description of other foreclosure
prevention alternatives for which the borrower may be eligible, and a
list of the steps the borrower must take in order to be considered
for those options. If the mortgage servicer has already approved the
borrower for another foreclosure prevention alternative, information
necessary to complete the foreclosure prevention alternative.
   (g) In order to minimize the risk of borrowers submitting multiple
applications for first lien loan modifications for the purpose of
delay, the mortgage servicer shall not be obligated to evaluate
applications from borrowers who have already been evaluated or
afforded a fair opportunity to be evaluated for a first lien loan
modification prior to January 1, 2013, or who have been evaluated or
afforded a fair opportunity to be evaluated consistent with the
requirements of this section, unless there has been a material change
in the borrower's financial circumstances since the date of the
borrower's previous application and that change is documented by the
borrower and submitted to the mortgage servicer.
   (h) For purposes of this section, an application shall be deemed
"complete" when a borrower has supplied the mortgage servicer with
all documents required by the mortgage servicer within the reasonable
timeframes specified by the mortgage servicer.
   (i) Subdivisions (c) to (h), inclusive, shall not apply to
entities described in subdivision (b) of Section 2924.18.
   (j) This section shall apply only to mortgages or deeds of trust
described in Section 2924.15.
    (k)  This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.
  SEC. 8.  Section 2923.6 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2923.6.  (a) The Legislature finds and declares that any duty
mortgage servicers may have to maximize net present value under their
pooling and servicing agreements is owed to all parties in a loan
pool, or to all investors under a pooling and servicing agreement,
not to any particular party in the loan pool or investor under a
pooling and servicing agreement, and that a mortgage servicer acts in
the best interests of all parties to the loan pool or investors in
the pooling and servicing agreement if it agrees to or implements a
loan modification or workout plan for which both of the following
apply:
   (1) The loan is in payment default, or payment default is
reasonably foreseeable.
   (2) Anticipated recovery under the loan modification or workout
plan exceeds the anticipated recovery through foreclosure on a net
present value basis.
   (b) It is the intent of the Legislature that the mortgage servicer
offer the borrower a loan modification or workout plan if such a
modification or plan is consistent with its contractual or other
authority.
   (c) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2018.
  SEC. 9.  Section 2923.7 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2923.7.  (a) Upon request from a borrower who requests a
foreclosure prevention alternative, the mortgage servicer shall
promptly establish a single point of contact and provide to the
borrower one or more direct means of communication with the single
point of contact.
   (b) The single point of contact shall be responsible for doing all
of the following:
   (1) Communicating the process by which a borrower may apply for an
available foreclosure prevention alternative and the deadline for
any required submissions to be considered for these options.
   (2) Coordinating receipt of all documents associated with
available foreclosure prevention alternatives and notifying the
borrower of any missing documents necessary to complete the
application.
   (3) Having access to current information and personnel sufficient
to timely, accurately, and adequately inform the borrower of the
current status of the foreclosure prevention alternative.
   (4) Ensuring that a borrower is considered for all foreclosure
prevention alternatives offered by, or through, the mortgage
servicer, if any.
   (5) Having access to individuals with the ability and authority to
stop foreclosure proceedings when necessary.
   (c) The single point of contact shall remain assigned to the
borrower's account until the mortgage servicer determines that all
loss mitigation options offered by, or through, the mortgage servicer
have been exhausted or the borrower's account becomes current.
   (d) The mortgage servicer shall ensure that a single point of
contact refers and transfers a borrower to an appropriate supervisor
upon request of the borrower, if the single point of contact has a
supervisor.
   (e) For purposes of this section, "single point of contact" means
an individual or team of personnel each of whom has the ability and
authority to perform the responsibilities described in subdivisions
(b) to (d), inclusive. The mortgage servicer shall ensure that each
member of the team is knowledgeable about the borrower's situation
and current status in the alternatives to foreclosure process.
   (f) This section shall apply only to mortgages or deeds of trust
described in Section 2924.15.
   (g) (1) This section shall not apply to a depository institution
chartered under state or federal law, a person licensed pursuant to
Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) or Division 20 (commencing
with Section 50000) of the Financial Code, or a person licensed
pursuant to Part 1 (commencing with Section 10000) of Division 4 of
the Business and Professions Code, that, during its immediately
preceding annual reporting period, as established with its primary
regulator, foreclosed on 175 or fewer residential real properties,
containing no more than four dwelling units, that are located in
California.
   (2) Within three months after the close of any calendar year or
annual reporting period as established with its primary regulator
during which an entity or person described in paragraph (1) exceeds
the threshold of 175 specified in paragraph (1), that entity shall
notify its primary regulator, in a manner acceptable to its primary
regulator, and any mortgagor or trustor who is delinquent on a
residential mortgage loan serviced by that entity of the date on
which that entity will be subject to this section, which date shall
be the first day of the first month that is six months after the
close of the calendar year or annual reporting period during which
that entity exceeded the threshold.
  SEC. 10.  Section 2924 of the Civil Code, as amended by Section 1
of Chapter 180 of the Statutes of 2010, is amended to read:
   2924.  (a) Every transfer of an interest in property, other than
in trust, made only as a security for the performance of another act,
is to be deemed a mortgage, except when in the case of personal
property it is accompanied by actual change of possession, in which
case it is to be deemed a pledge. Where, by a mortgage created after
July 27, 1917, of any estate in real property, other than an estate
at will or for years, less than two, or in any transfer in trust made
after July 27, 1917, of a like estate to secure the performance of
an obligation, a power of sale is conferred upon the mortgagee,
trustee, or any other person, to be exercised after a breach of the
obligation for which that mortgage or transfer is a security, the
power shall not be exercised except where the mortgage or transfer is
made pursuant to an order, judgment, or decree of a court of record,
or to secure the payment of bonds or other evidences of indebtedness
authorized or permitted to be issued by the Commissioner of
Corporations, or is made by a public utility subject to the
provisions of the Public Utilities Act, until all of the following
apply:
   (1) The trustee, mortgagee, or beneficiary, or any of their
authorized agents shall first file for record, in the office of the
recorder of each county wherein the mortgaged or trust property or
some part or parcel thereof is situated, a notice of default. That
notice of default shall include all of the following:
   (A) A statement identifying the mortgage or deed of trust by
stating the name or names of the trustor or trustors and giving the
book and page, or instrument number, if applicable, where the
mortgage or deed of trust is recorded or a description of the
mortgaged or trust property.
   (B) A statement that a breach of the obligation for which the
mortgage or transfer in trust is security has occurred.
   (C) A statement setting forth the nature of each breach actually
known to the beneficiary and of his or her election to sell or cause
to be sold the property to satisfy that obligation and any other
obligation secured by the deed of trust or mortgage that is in
default.
   (D) If the default is curable pursuant to Section 2924c, the
statement specified in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section
2924c.
   (2) Not less than three months shall elapse from the filing of the
notice of default.
   (3) Except as provided in paragraph (4), after the lapse of the
three months described in paragraph (2), the mortgagee, trustee, or
other person authorized to take the sale shall give notice of sale,
stating the time and place thereof, in the manner and for a time not
less than that set forth in Section 2924f.
   (4) Notwithstanding paragraph (3), the mortgagee, trustee, or
other person authorized to take sale may record a notice of sale
pursuant to Section 2924f up to five days before the lapse of the
three-month period described in paragraph (2), provided that the date
of sale is no earlier than three months and 20 days after the
recording of the notice of default.
   (5) Until January 1, 2018, whenever a sale is postponed for a
period of at least 10 business days pursuant to Section 2924g, a
mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall provide written
notice to a borrower regarding the new sale date and time, within
five business days following the postponement. Information provided
pursuant to this paragraph shall not constitute the public
declaration required by subdivision (d) of Section 2924g. Failure to
comply with this paragraph shall not invalidate any sale that would
otherwise be valid under Section 2924f. This paragraph shall be
inoperative on January 1, 2018.
   (6) No entity shall record or cause a notice of default to be
recorded or otherwise initiate the foreclosure process unless it is
the holder of the beneficial interest under the mortgage or deed of
trust, the original trustee or the substituted trustee under the deed
of trust, or the designated agent of the holder of the beneficial
interest. No agent of the holder of the beneficial interest under the
mortgage or deed of trust, original trustee or substituted trustee
under the deed of trust may record a notice of default or otherwise
commence the foreclosure process except when acting within the scope
of authority designated by the holder of the beneficial interest.
   (b) In performing acts required by this article, the trustee shall
incur no liability for any good faith error resulting from reliance
on information provided in good faith by the beneficiary regarding
the nature and the amount of the default under the secured
obligation, deed of trust, or mortgage. In performing the acts
required by this article, a trustee shall not be subject to Title
1.6c (commencing with Section 1788) of Part 4.
   (c) A recital in the deed executed pursuant to the power of sale
of compliance with all requirements of law regarding the mailing of
copies of notices or the publication of a copy of the notice of
default or the personal delivery of the copy of the notice of default
or the posting of copies of the notice of sale or the publication of
a copy thereof shall constitute prima facie evidence of compliance
with these requirements and conclusive evidence thereof in favor of
bona fide purchasers and encumbrancers for value and without notice.
   (d) All of the following shall constitute privileged
communications pursuant to Section 47:
   (1) The mailing, publication, and delivery of notices as required
by this section.
   (2) Performance of the procedures set forth in this article.
   (3) Performance of the functions and procedures set forth in this
article if those functions and procedures are necessary to carry out
the duties described in Sections 729.040, 729.050, and 729.080 of the
Code of Civil Procedure.
   (e) There is a rebuttable presumption that the beneficiary
actually knew of all unpaid loan payments on the obligation owed to
the beneficiary and secured by the deed of trust or mortgage subject
to the notice of default. However, the failure to include an actually
known default shall not invalidate the notice of sale and the
beneficiary shall not be precluded from asserting a claim to this
omitted default or defaults in a separate notice of default.
  SEC. 11.  Section 2924 of the Civil Code, as amended by Section 2
of Chapter 180 of the Statutes of 2010, is repealed.
  SEC. 12.  Section 2924.9 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.9.  (a) Unless a borrower has previously exhausted the first
lien loan modification process offered by, or through, his or her
mortgage servicer described in Section 2923.6, within five business
days after recording a notice of default pursuant to Section 2924, a
mortgage servicer that offers one or more foreclosure prevention
alternatives shall send a written communication to the borrower that
includes all of the following information:
   (1) That the borrower may be evaluated for a foreclosure
prevention alternative or, if applicable, foreclosure prevention
alternatives.
   (2) Whether an application is required to be submitted by the
borrower in order to be considered for a foreclosure prevention
alternative.
   (3) The means and process by which a borrower may obtain an
application for a foreclosure prevention alternative.
   (b) This section shall not apply to entities described in
subdivision (b) of Section 2924.18.
   (c) This section shall apply only to mortgages or deeds of trust
described in Section 2924.15.
   (d)  This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.
  SEC. 13.  Section 2924.10 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.10.  (a) When a borrower submits a complete first lien
modification application or any document in connection with a first
lien modification application, the mortgage servicer shall provide
written acknowledgment of the receipt of the documentation within
five business days of receipt. In its initial acknowledgment of
receipt of the loan modification application, the mortgage servicer
shall include the following information:
   (1) A description of the loan modification process, including an
estimate of when a decision on the loan modification will be made
after a complete application has been submitted by the borrower and
the length of time the borrower will have to consider an offer of a
loan modification or other foreclosure prevention alternative.
   (2) Any deadlines, including deadlines to submit missing
documentation, that would affect the processing of a first lien loan
modification application.
   (3) Any expiration dates for submitted documents.
   (4) Any deficiency in the borrower's first lien loan modification
application.
   (b) For purposes of this section, a borrower's first lien loan
modification application shall be deemed to be "complete" when a
borrower has supplied the mortgage servicer with all documents
required by the mortgage servicer within the reasonable timeframes
specified by the mortgage servicer.
   (c) This section shall not apply to entities described in
subdivision (b) of Section 2924.18.
   (d) This section shall apply only to mortgages or deeds of trust
described in Section 2924.15.
   (e)  This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.
  SEC. 14.  Section 2924.11 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.11.  (a) If a foreclosure prevention alternative is approved
in writing prior to the recordation of a notice of default, a
mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized
agent shall not record a notice of default under either of the
following circumstances:
   (1) The borrower is in compliance with the terms of a written
trial or permanent loan modification, forbearance, or repayment plan.

   (2) A foreclosure prevention alternative has been approved in
writing by all parties, including, for example, the first lien
investor, junior lienholder, and mortgage insurer, as applicable, and
proof of funds or financing has been provided to the servicer.
   (b) If a foreclosure prevention alternative is approved in writing
after the recordation of a notice of default, a mortgage servicer,
mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall not record
a notice of sale or conduct a trustee's sale under either of the
following circumstances:
   (1) The borrower is in compliance with the terms of a written
trial or permanent loan modification, forbearance, or repayment plan.

   (2) A foreclosure prevention alternative has been approved in
writing by all parties, including, for example, the first lien
investor, junior lienholder, and mortgage insurer, as applicable, and
proof of funds or financing has been provided to the servicer.
   (c) When a borrower accepts an offered first lien loan
modification or other foreclosure prevention alternative, the
mortgage servicer shall provide the borrower with a copy of the fully
executed loan modification agreement or agreement evidencing the
foreclosure prevention alternative following receipt of the executed
copy from the borrower.
   (d) A mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall record a
rescission of a notice of default or cancel a pending trustee's sale,
if applicable, upon the borrower executing a permanent foreclosure
prevention alternative. In the case of a short sale, the rescission
or cancellation of the pending trustee's sale shall occur when the
short sale has been approved by all parties and proof of funds or
financing has been provided to the mortgagee, beneficiary, or
authorized agent.
   (e) The mortgage servicer shall not charge any application,
processing, or other fee for a first lien loan modification or other
foreclosure prevention alternative.
   (f) The mortgage servicer shall not collect any late fees for
periods during which a complete first lien loan modification
application is under consideration or a denial is being appealed, the
borrower is making timely modification payments, or a foreclosure
prevention alternative is being evaluated or exercised.
   (g) If a borrower has been approved in writing for a first lien
loan modification or other foreclosure prevention alternative, and
the servicing of that borrower's loan is transferred or sold to
another mortgage servicer, the subsequent mortgage servicer shall
continue to honor any previously approved first lien loan
modification or other foreclosure prevention alternative, in
accordance with the provisions of the act that added this section.
   (h) This section shall apply only to mortgages or deeds of trust
described in Section 2924.15.
   (i) This section shall not apply to entities described in
subdivision (b) of Section 2924.18.
   (j)  This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.
  SEC. 15.  Section 2924.11 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.11.  (a) If a borrower submits a complete application for a
foreclosure prevention alternative offered by, or through, the
borrower's mortgage servicer, a mortgage servicer, trustee,
mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall not record a notice
of sale or conduct a trustee's sale while the complete foreclosure
prevention alternative application is pending, and until the borrower
has been provided with a written determination by the mortgage
servicer regarding that borrower's eligibility for the requested
foreclosure prevention alternative.
   (b) Following the denial of a first lien loan modification
application, the mortgage servicer shall send a written notice to the
borrower identifying with specificity the reasons for the denial and
shall include a statement that the borrower may obtain additional
documentation supporting the denial decision upon written request to
the mortgage servicer.
   (c) If a foreclosure prevention alternative is approved in writing
prior to the recordation of a notice of default, a mortgage
servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall
not record a notice of default under either of the following
circumstances:
   (1) The borrower is in compliance with the terms of a written
trial or permanent loan modification, forbearance, or repayment plan.

   (2) A foreclosure prevention alternative has been approved in
writing by all parties, including, for example, the first lien
investor, junior lienholder, and mortgage insurer, as applicable, and
proof of funds or financing has been provided to the servicer.
   (d) If a foreclosure prevention alternative is approved in writing
after the recordation of a notice of default, a mortgage servicer,
mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall not record
a notice of sale or conduct a trustee's sale under either of the
following circumstances:
   (1) The borrower is in compliance with the terms of a written
trial or permanent loan modification, forbearance, or repayment plan.

   (2) A foreclosure prevention alternative has been approved in
writing by all parties, including, for example, the first lien
investor, junior lienholder, and mortgage insurer, as applicable, and
proof of funds or financing has been provided to the servicer.
   (e) This section applies only to mortgages or deeds of trust as
described in Section 2924.15.
   (f) For purposes of this section, an application shall be deemed
"complete" when a borrower has supplied the mortgage servicer with
all documents required by the mortgage servicer within the reasonable
timeframes specified by the mortgage servicer.
   (g) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2018.
  SEC. 16.  Section 2924.12 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.12.  (a) (1) If a trustee's deed upon sale has not been
recorded, a borrower may bring an action for injunctive relief to
enjoin a material violation of Section 2923.55, 2923.6, 2923.7,
2924.9, 2924.10, 2924.11, or 2924.17.
   (2) Any injunction shall remain in place and any trustee's sale
shall be enjoined until the court determines that the mortgage
servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent has
corrected and remedied the violation or violations giving rise to the
action for injunctive relief. An enjoined entity may move to
dissolve an injunction based on a showing that the material violation
has been corrected and remedied.
   (b) After a trustee's deed upon sale has been recorded, a mortgage
servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall
be liable to a borrower for actual economic damages pursuant to
Section 3281, resulting from a material violation of Section 2923.55,
2923.6, 2923.7, 2924.9, 2924.10, 2924.11, or 2924.17 by that
mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized
agent where the violation was not corrected and remedied prior to the
recordation of the trustee's deed upon sale. If the court finds that
the material violation was intentional or reckless, or resulted from
willful misconduct by a mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee,
beneficiary, or authorized agent, the court may award the borrower
the greater of treble actual damages or statutory damages of fifty
thousand dollars ($50,000).
   (c) A mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or
authorized agent shall not be liable for any violation that it has
corrected and remedied prior to the recordation of a trustee's deed
upon sale, or that has been corrected and remedied by third parties
working on its behalf prior to the recordation of a trustee's deed
upon sale.
   (d) A violation of Section 2923.55, 2923.6, 2923.7, 2924.9,
2924.10, 2924.11, or 2924.17 by a person licensed by the Department
of Corporations, Department of Financial Institutions, or Department
of Real Estate shall be deemed to be a violation of that person's
licensing law.
   (e) No violation of this article shall affect the validity of a
sale in favor of a bona fide purchaser and any of its encumbrancers
for value without notice.
   (f) A third-party encumbrancer shall not be relieved of liability
resulting from violations of Section 2923.55, 2923.6, 2923.7, 2924.9,
2924.10, 2924.11, or 2924.17 committed by that third-party
encumbrancer, that occurred prior to the sale of the subject property
to the bona fide purchaser.
   (g) A signatory to a consent judgment entered in the case entitled
United States of America et al. v. Bank of America Corporation et
al., filed in the United States District Court for the District of
Columbia, case number 1:12-cv-00361 RMC, that is in compliance with
the relevant terms of the Settlement Term Sheet of that consent
judgment with respect to the borrower who brought an action pursuant
to this section while the consent judgment is in effect shall have no
liability for a violation of Section 2923.55, 2923.6, 2923.7,
2924.9, 2924.10, 2924.11, or 2924.17.
   (h) The rights, remedies, and procedures provided by this section
are in addition to and independent of any other rights, remedies, or
procedures under any other law. Nothing in this section shall be
construed to alter, limit, or negate any other rights, remedies, or
procedures provided by law.
   (i) A court may award a prevailing borrower reasonable attorney's
fees and costs in an action brought pursuant to this section. A
borrower shall be deemed to have prevailed for purposes of this
subdivision if the borrower obtained injunctive relief or was awarded
damages pursuant to this section.
   (j) This section shall not apply to entities described in
subdivision (b) of Section 2924.18.
   (k)  This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.
  SEC. 17.  Section 2924.12 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.12.  (a) (1) If a trustee's deed upon sale has not been
recorded, a borrower may bring an action for injunctive relief to
enjoin a                                                 material
violation of Section 2923.5, 2923.7, 2924.11, or 2924.17.
   (2) Any injunction shall remain in place and any trustee's sale
shall be enjoined until the court determines that the mortgage
servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent has
corrected and remedied the violation or violations giving rise to the
action for injunctive relief. An enjoined entity may move to
dissolve an injunction based on a showing that the material violation
has been corrected and remedied.
   (b) After a trustee's deed upon sale has been recorded, a mortgage
servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall
be liable to a borrower for actual economic damages pursuant to
Section 3281, resulting from a material violation of Section 2923.5,
2923.7, 2924.11, or 2924.17 by that mortgage servicer, mortgagee,
trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent where the violation was not
corrected and remedied prior to the recordation of the trustee's
deed upon sale. If the court finds that the material violation was
intentional or reckless, or resulted from willful misconduct by a
mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized
agent, the court may award the borrower the greater of treble actual
damages or statutory damages of fifty thousand dollars ($50,000).
   (c) A mortgage servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or
authorized agent shall not be liable for any violation that it has
corrected and remedied prior to the recordation of the trustee's deed
upon sale, or that has been corrected and remedied by third parties
working on its behalf prior to the recordation of the trustee's deed
upon sale.
   (d) A violation of Section 2923.5, 2923.7, 2924.11, or 2924.17 by
a person licensed by the Department of Corporations, Department of
Financial Institutions, or Department of Real Estate shall be deemed
to be a violation of that person's licensing law.
   (e) No violation of this article shall affect the validity of a
sale in favor of a bona fide purchaser and any of its encumbrancers
for value without notice.
   (f) A third-party encumbrancer shall not be relieved of liability
resulting from violations of Section 2923.5, 2923.7, 2924.11, or
2924.17 committed by that third-party encumbrancer, that occurred
prior to the sale of the subject property to the bona fide purchaser.

   (g) The rights, remedies, and procedures provided by this section
are in addition to and independent of any other rights, remedies, or
procedures under any other law. Nothing in this section shall be
construed to alter, limit, or negate any other rights, remedies, or
procedures provided by law.
   (h) A court may award a prevailing borrower reasonable attorney's
fees and costs in an action brought pursuant to this section. A
borrower shall be deemed to have prevailed for purposes of this
subdivision if the borrower obtained injunctive relief or was awarded
damages pursuant to this section.
   (i) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2018.
  SEC. 18.  Section 2924.15 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.15.  (a) Unless otherwise provided, paragraph (5) of
subdivision (a) of Section 2924, and Sections 2923.5, 2923.55,
2923.6, 2923.7, 2924.9, 2924.10, 2924.11, and 2924.18 shall apply
only to first lien mortgages or deeds of trust that are secured by
owner-occupied residential real property containing no more than four
dwelling units. For these purposes, "owner-occupied" means that the
property is the principal residence of the borrower and is security
for a loan made for personal, family, or household purposes.
   (b)  This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.
  SEC. 19.  Section 2924.15 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.15.  (a) Unless otherwise provided, Sections 2923.5, 2923.7,
and 2924.11 shall apply only to first lien mortgages or deeds of
trust that are secured by owner-occupied residential real property
containing no more than four dwelling units. For these purposes,
"owner-occupied" means that the property is the principal residence
of the borrower and is security for a loan made for personal, family,
or household purposes.
   (b) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2018.
  SEC. 20.  Section 2924.17 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.17.  (a) A declaration recorded pursuant to Section 2923.5
or, until January 1, 2018, pursuant to Section 2923.55, a notice of
default, notice of sale, assignment of a deed of trust, or
substitution of trustee recorded by or on behalf of a mortgage
servicer in connection with a foreclosure subject to the requirements
of Section 2924, or a declaration or affidavit filed in any court
relative to a foreclosure proceeding shall be accurate and complete
and supported by competent and reliable evidence.
   (b) Before recording or filing any of the documents described in
subdivision (a), a mortgage servicer shall ensure that it has
reviewed competent and reliable evidence to substantiate the borrower'
s default and the right to foreclose, including the borrower's loan
status and loan information.
   (c) Until January 1, 2018, any mortgage servicer that engages in
multiple and repeated uncorrected violations of subdivision (b) in
recording documents or filing documents in any court relative to a
foreclosure proceeding shall be liable for a civil penalty of up to
seven thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500) per mortgage or deed of
trust in an action brought by a government entity identified in
Section 17204 of the Business and Professions Code, or in an
administrative proceeding brought by the Department of Corporations,
the Department of Real Estate, or the Department of Financial
Institutions against a respective licensee, in addition to any other
remedies available to these entities. This subdivision shall be
inoperative on January 1, 2018.
  SEC. 21.  Section 2924.18 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.18.  (a) (1) If a borrower submits a complete application for
a first lien loan modification offered by, or through, the borrower'
s mortgage servicer, a mortgage servicer, trustee, mortgagee,
beneficiary, or authorized agent shall not record a notice of
default, notice of sale, or conduct a trustee's sale while the
complete first lien loan modification application is pending, and
until the borrower has been provided with a written determination by
the mortgage servicer regarding that borrower's eligibility for the
requested loan modification.
   (2) If a foreclosure prevention alternative has been approved in
writing prior to the recordation of a notice of default, a mortgage
servicer, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall
not record a notice of default under either of the following
circumstances:
   (A) The borrower is in compliance with the terms of a written
trial or permanent loan modification, forbearance, or repayment plan.

   (B) A foreclosure prevention alternative has been approved in
writing by all parties, including, for example, the first lien
investor, junior lienholder, and mortgage insurer, as applicable, and
proof of funds or financing has been provided to the servicer.
   (3) If a foreclosure prevention alternative is approved in writing
after the recordation of a notice of default, a mortgage servicer,
mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall not record
a notice of sale or conduct a trustee's sale under either of the
following circumstances:
   (A) The borrower is in compliance with the terms of a written
trial or permanent loan modification, forbearance, or repayment plan.

   (B) A foreclosure prevention alternative has been approved in
writing by all parties, including, for example, the first lien
investor, junior lienholder, and mortgage insurer, as applicable, and
proof of funds or financing has been provided to the servicer.
   (b) This section shall apply only to a depository institution
chartered under state or federal law, a person licensed pursuant to
Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) or Division 20 (commencing
with Section 50000) of the Financial Code, or a person licensed
pursuant to Part 1 (commencing with Section 10000) of Division 4 of
the Business and Professions Code, that, during its immediately
preceding annual reporting period, as established with its primary
regulator, foreclosed on 175 or fewer residential real properties,
containing no more than four dwelling units, that are located in
California.
   (c) Within three months after the close of any calendar year or
annual reporting period as established with its primary regulator
during which an entity or person described in subdivision (b) exceeds
the threshold of 175 specified in subdivision (b), that entity shall
notify its primary regulator, in a manner acceptable to its primary
regulator, and any mortgagor or trustor who is delinquent on a
residential mortgage loan serviced by that entity of the date on
which that entity will be subject to Sections 2923.55, 2923.6,
2923.7, 2924.9, 2924.10, 2924.11, and 2924.12, which date shall be
the first day of the first month that is six months after the close
of the calendar year or annual reporting period during which that
entity exceeded the threshold.
   (d) For purposes of this section, an application shall be deemed
"complete" when a borrower has supplied the mortgage servicer with
all documents required by the mortgage servicer within the reasonable
timeframes specified by the mortgage servicer.
   (e) If a borrower has been approved in writing for a first lien
loan modification or other foreclosure prevention alternative, and
the servicing of the borrower's loan is transferred or sold to
another mortgage servicer, the subsequent mortgage servicer shall
continue to honor any previously approved first lien loan
modification or other foreclosure prevention alternative, in
accordance with the provisions of the act that added this section.
   (f) This section shall apply only to mortgages or deeds of trust
described in Section 2924.15.
   (g)  This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.
  SEC. 22.  Section 2924.19 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.19.  (a) (1) If a trustee's deed upon sale has not been
recorded, a borrower may bring an action for injunctive relief to
enjoin a material violation of Section 2923.5, 2924.17, or 2924.18.
   (2) Any injunction shall remain in place and any trustee's sale
shall be enjoined until the court determines that the mortgage
servicer, mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent has corrected
and remedied the violation or violations giving rise to the action
for injunctive relief. An enjoined entity may move to dissolve an
injunction based on a showing that the material violation has been
corrected and remedied.
   (b) After a trustee's deed upon sale has been recorded, a mortgage
servicer, mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall be
liable to a borrower for actual economic damages pursuant to Section
3281, resulting from a material violation of Section 2923.5, 2924.17,
or 2924.18 by that mortgage servicer, mortgagee, beneficiary, or
authorized agent where the violation was not corrected and remedied
prior to the recordation of the trustee's deed upon sale. If the
court finds that the material violation was intentional or reckless,
or resulted from willful misconduct by a mortgage servicer,
mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent, the court may award the
borrower the greater of treble actual damages or statutory damages of
fifty thousand dollars ($50,000).
   (c) A mortgage servicer, mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized
agent shall not be liable for any violation that it has corrected and
remedied prior to the recordation of the trustee's deed upon sale,
or that has been corrected and remedied by third parties working on
its behalf prior to the recordation of the trustee's deed upon sale.
   (d) A violation of Section 2923.5, 2924.17, or 2917.18 by a person
licensed by the Department of Corporations, the Department of
Financial Institutions, or the Department of Real Estate shall be
deemed to be a violation of that person's licensing law.
   (e) No violation of this article shall affect the validity of a
sale in favor of a bona fide purchaser and any of its encumbrancers
for value without notice.
   (f) A third-party encumbrancer shall not be relieved of liability
resulting from violations of Section 2923.5, 2924.17 or 2924.18,
committed by that third-party encumbrancer, that occurred prior to
the sale of the subject property to the bona fide purchaser.
   (g) The rights, remedies, and procedures provided by this section
are in addition to and independent of any other rights, remedies, or
procedures under any other law. Nothing in this section shall be
construed to alter, limit, or negate any other rights, remedies, or
procedures provided by law.
   (h) A court may award a prevailing borrower reasonable attorney's
fees and costs in an action brought pursuant to this section. A
borrower shall be deemed to have prevailed for purposes of this
subdivision if the borrower obtained injunctive relief or damages
pursuant to this section.
   (i) This section shall apply only to entities described in
subdivision (b) of Section 2924.18.
   (j)  This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.
  SEC. 23.  Section 2924.20 is added to the Civil Code, to read:
   2924.20.  Consistent with their general regulatory authority, and
notwithstanding subdivisions (b) and (c) of Section 2924.18, the
Department of Corporations, the Department of Financial Institutions,
and the Department of Real Estate may adopt regulations applicable
to any entity or person under their respective jurisdictions that are
necessary to carry out the purposes of the act that added this
section. A violation of the regulations adopted pursuant to this
section shall only be enforceable by the regulatory agency.
  SEC. 24.  The provisions of this act are severable. If any
provision of this act or its application is held invalid, that
invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications that can
be given effect without the invalid provision or application.
  SEC. 25.   No reimbursement is required by this act pursuant to
Section 6 of Article XIII B of the California Constitution because
the only costs that may be incurred by a local agency or school
district will be incurred because this act creates a new crime or
infraction, eliminates a crime or infraction, or changes the penalty
for a crime or infraction, within the meaning of Section 17556 of the
Government Code, or changes the definition of a crime within the
meaning of Section 6 of Article XIII B of the California
Constitution.

Rights of a Tenant in Foreclosed Residential or Retail Property

31 Oct


Now RentingIf your landlord loses the home you’re renting to foreclosure, federal law protects you against suddenly finding yourself evicted. In some cities, you can’t be evicted because of foreclosure at all.

In others, you can usually keep your home until your lease expires. If you’re renting commercial property, such as retail space, you may have a little less protection. It depends on the terms of your lease.

You Have at Least Three Months to Move

In 2009, federal law changed to protect residential renters. Unless the person who buys your home in a foreclosure sale wants to live there, the new owner must honor your lease until it expires.

A new owner who wants to live in your home must give you 90 days’ notice to leave. Residents of a rent-controlled building can never be evicted because of foreclosure. Some cities have additional laws that protect you from eviction because of foreclosure.

Some Lenders Will Continue to Rent to You

If the home you are renting doesn’t sell in a foreclosure sale, you might be able to renew your lease from the mortgage lender. When no one bids enough in a foreclosure auction to cover the mortgage loan, the lender keeps the house.

Some lenders, such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, will consider continuing your lease. You would pay rent to them rather than to your landlord. Private lenders might consider renting to you as well, at least until they find a buyer for the home.

The New Owner Might Try to Make You Leave Sooner

A new owner who buys the home you are renting in a foreclosure sale might be eager to make you move in order to facilitate resale of the property. The new owner might even be willing to pay your moving expenses.

The choice is yours. If the new owner wants to live in your home, which means you only have 90 days anyway, you might want to accept the money and move. Speak with a lawyer and make sure you get the deal in writing.

Tenants rights in Commercial Property Foreclosure

If you’re leasing retail space and your landlord’s mortgage lender forecloses on the property, the lender might be able to evict you. However, if your lease includes a non-disturbance agreement, your business is safe as long as you keep paying your rent. A non-disturbance agreement is a promise from the lender that you can continue doing business from that location, even if it forecloses on the property.

A Foreclosure Lawyer Can Help

The law surrounding the rights of tenants occupying foreclosed property is complicated. Plus, the facts of each case are unique. This article provides a brief, general introduction to the topic. For more detailed, specific information, please contact our office at the numbers listed above.

 

 

California Court Addresses

1.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
ALHAMBRA COURTHOUSE
150 W. COMMONWEALTH AVE.
ALHAMBRA, CA 91801

2.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF RIVERSIDE
BANNING COURT
135 N. ALESSANDRO RD.
BANNING, CA 92220

3.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
BARSTOW DISTRICT
235 E. MT. VIEW AVE.
BARSTOW, CA 92311

4.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
BEVERLY HILLS COURTHOUSE
9355 BURTON WAY
BEVERLY HILLS, CA 90210

5.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
BIG BEAR DISTRICT
477 SUMMIT BLVD.
P.O BOX 6602
BIG BEAR LAKE, CA 92315

6.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
BURBANK COURTHOUSE
300 E. OLIVE AVE.
BURBANK, CA 91502

7.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
CHINO DISTRICT
13260 CENTRAL AVE.
CHINO, CA 91710

8.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN DIEGO
CHULA VISTA COURTHOUSE
500 THIRD AVE.
CHULA VISTA, CA 91910

9.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
CHATSWORTH COURTHOUSE
9425 PENFIELD AVE.
CHATSWORTH, CA 91311

10.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
COMPTON COURTHOUSE
200 W. COMPTON BLVD
COMPTON, CA 90220

11.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
CALAVERAS COUNTY
891 MOUNTAIN RANCH RD.
SAN ANDREAS, CA 95249

12.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF RIVERSIDE
BLYTHE DIVISION
265 BROADWAY
BLYTHE, CA 92225

13.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
DOWNEY COURTHOUSE
7500 E. IMPERIAL HIGHWAY
DOWNEY, CA 90242

14.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN DIEGO
EL CAJON COURTHOUSE
250 E. MAIN ST.
EL CAJON, CA 92020

15.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
EL MONTE COURTHOUSE
11234 EAST VALLEY BLVD.
EL MONTE, CA 91731

16.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ALAMEDA
BERKELEY COURTHOUSE
2120 MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.
BERKELEY, CA 94704

17.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
FONTANA DISTRICT
17780 ARROW HIGHWAY
FONTANA, CA 92335

18.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN LUIS OBISPO
GROVER BEACH BRANCH
214 SO. 16TH ST.
GROVER BEACH, CA 93433

19.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ORANGE
NORTH JUSTICE CENTER
FULLERTON DISTRICT
P.O BOX 5000
FULLERTON, CA 92838

20.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
GLENDALE COURTHOUSE
600 EAST BROADWAY
GLENDALE, CA 91206

21.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF RIVERSIDE
HEMET COURT
880 NO. STATE ST.
HEMET, CA 92543

22.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
HUNTINGTON PARK COURTHOUSE
6548 MILES AVE.
HUNTINGTON PARK, CA 90255

23.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF RIVERSIDE
INDIO COURT
46200 OASIS ST.
INDIO, CA 92201

24.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
INGLEWOOD COURTHOUSE
ONE REGENT ST.
INGLEWOOD, CA 90301

25.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
JOSHUA TREE DISTRICT
6527 WHITE FEATHER RD.
P.O BOX 6602
JOSHUA TREE, CA 92252

26.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ORANGE
LAGUNA HILLS FACILITY
23141 MOULTON PKWY
LAGUNA HILLS, CA 92653

27.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF KERN
DELANO-MCFARLAND BRANCH
1122 JEFFERSON ST.
DELANO, CA 93215

28.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
LANCASTER/PALMDALE COURTHOUSE
42011 4TH ST. WEST
LANCASTER, CA 93534

29.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
LONG BEACH COURTHOUSE
415 W. OCEAN BLVD
LONG BEACH, CA 90802

30.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
STANLEY MOSK COURTHOUSE
CIVIL PROCESSING
111 N. HILL ST
LOS ANGELES, CA 90012

31.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
EAST LOS ANGELES COURTHOUSE
4848 EAST CIVIC CENTER WAY
LOS ANGELES, CA 90022

32.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
WEST LOS ANGELES COURTHOUSE
1633 PURDUE AVE.
LOS ANGELES, CA 90025

33.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
MALIBU COURTHOUSE
23525 CIVIC CENTER WAY
MALIBU, CA 90265

34.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF KERN
MOJAVE BRANCH
1773 HWY. 58
MOJAVE, CA 93501

36.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ALAMEDA
PLEASONTON COURTHOUSE (EAST)
5672 STONEDRIDGE DR.
PLEASONTON, CA 94588

37.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ALPINE
ALPINE COUNTY COURTHOUSE
P.O BOX 89
MARKLEEVILLE, CA 96120

38.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
PASADENA COURTHOUSE
300 E. WALNUT ST., RM 116
PASADENA, CA 91101

39.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ORANGE
HARBOR JUSTICE CENTER
4601 JAMBOREE RD.
NEWPORT BEACH, CA 92660

40.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
350 WEST MISSION BLVD
POMONA, CA 91766

41.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF CONTRA COSTA
RICHMOND COURTHOUSE
100 37TH ST.
RICHMOND, CA 94805

42.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
RANCHO CUCAMONGA DISTRICT
8303 NO. HAVEN AVE.
RANCHO CUCAMONGA, CA 91730

43.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
REDLANDS DISTRICT
216 BROOKSIDE AVE.
REDLANDS, CA 92373

44.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF RIVERSIDE
MORENO VALLEY DISTRICT
13800 HEACOCK ST
MORENO VALLEY, CA 92553

45.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
CENTRAL DISTRICT
351 N. ARROWHEAD AVE
SAN BERNARDINO, CA 92415

46.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN DIEGO
SAN DIEGO COURTHOUSE
330 W. BROADWAY
SAN DIEGO, CA 92101

47.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
SAN FERNANDO COURTHOUSE
900 THIRD ST
SAN FERNANDO, CA 91340

48.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SHASTA
SHASTA COUNTY COURTS
1500 COURT ST
REDDING, CA 96001

49.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
SAN PEDRO COURTHOUSE
505 SOUTH CENTRE ST.
SAN PEDRO, CA 90731

50.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ORANGE
CENTRAL JUSTICE CENTER
700 CIVIC CENTER DR., WEST
SANTA ANA, CA 92701

51.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SANTA BARBARA
SANTA BARBARA CIVIL DIVISION
1100 ANACAPA ST
SANTA BARBARA, CA 93101

52.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
SANTA MONICA COURTHOUSE
1725 MAIN ST
SANTA MONICA, CA 90401

53.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF VENTURA
SIMI VALLEY COURTHOUSE
3855-F ALAMO ST.
SIMI VALLEY, CA 93063

54.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF AMADOR
AMADOR COUNTY COURTHOUSE
108 COURT ST.
JACKSON, CA 95642

55.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF RIVERSIDE
TEMECULA COURT
41002 COUNTY CENTER DR
TEMECULA, CA 92591

56.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF IMPERIAL
220 MAIN ST
BRAWLEY, CA 92227

57.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
TWIN PEAKS DISTRICT
26010 STATE HWY 189
P.O BOX 394
TWIN PEAKS, CA 92391

58.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
SANTA CLARITA COURTHOUSE
23747 WEST VALENCIA BLVD.
SANTA CLARITA, CA 91355

59.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF CONTRA COSTA
PITTSBURG COURTHOUSE
45 CIVIC AVE.
PITTSBURG, CA 94565

60.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
VAN NUYS COURTHOUSE
2630 SYLMAR AVE
VAN NUYS, CA 91401

61.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF VENTURA
VENTURA COURTHOUSE
P.O BOX 6489
VENTURA, CA 93006

62.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
VICTORVILLE DISTRICT
14455 CIVIC DR. STE 100
VICTORVILLE, CA 93292

63.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF FRESNO
FRESNO SUPERIOR COURT
CIVIL DEPT.
1100 VAN NESS
FRESNO, CA 93724

64.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN DIEGO
VISTA DIVISION (NORTH)
325 SO. MELROSE DR.
VISTA, CA 92081

65.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
WEST COVINA COURTHOUSE
1427 WEST COVINA PKWY.
WEST COVINA, CA 91790

66.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ORANGE
WEST JUSTICE CENTER
8141 13TH ST.
WESTMINSTER, CA 92683

67.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
WHITTIER COURTHOUSE
7339 S. PAINTER AVE.
WHITTIER, CA 90602

68.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF KERN
METROPOLITAN DIVISION
1415 TRUXTUN AVE.
BAKERSFIELD, CA 93301

69.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
BELLFLOWER COURTHOUSE
10025 E. FLOWER ST.
BELLFLOWER, CA 90706

70.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ALAMEDA
HAYWARD JUSTICE CENTER
24405 AMADOR ST.
HAYWARD, CA 94544

71.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF NAPA
NAPA COURTHOUSE
CIVIL DIVISION
825 BROWN ST.
NAPA, CA 94559

72.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
REDONDO BEACH COURTHOUSE
117 W. TORRANCE BLVD
REDONDO BEACH, CA90277

73.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SACRAMENTO
CAROL MILLER JUSTICE CENTER
301 BICENTENNIAL CIRCLE
SACRAMENTO, CA 95826

74.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
TORRANCE COURTHOUSE
825 MAPLE AVE.
TORRANCE, CA 90503

75.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF KINGS
HANFORD COURTHOUSE
CIVIL DIVISION
1426 SOUTH DRIVE
HANFORD, CA 93230

77.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SANTA CLARA
191 N FIRST ST.
SAN JOSE, CA 95113

78.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN JOAQUIN
TRACY BRANCH
475 E. 10TH ST.
TRACY, CA 95376

79.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF IMPERIAL
EL CENTRO DEPARTMENT
939 W. MAIN ST.
EL CENTRO, CA 92243

80.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SANTA CLARA
SAN MARTIN COURTHOUSE
12425 MONTEREY RD.
SAN MARTIN, CA 95046

81.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF KERN
SHAFTER-WASCO BRANCH
325 CENTRAL VALLEY HWY
SHAFTER, CA 93263

82.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF MENDOCINO
UKIAH BRANCH-CIVIL
PERKINS & STATE STREETS
UKIAH, CA 95482

83.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO
NEEDLES DISTRICT
1111 BAILEY ST.
NEEDLES, CA 92363

84.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF KINGS
AVENAL DIVISION
501 E. KINGS ST.
AVENAL, CA 93204

85.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF PLUMAS
520 MAIN ST., RM. 104
QUINCY, CA 95971

86.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF KERN
RIDGECREST BRANCH
132 EAST COSO ST.
RIDGECREST, CA 93555

87.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF BUTTE
BUTTE COURTHOUSE
ONE COURT ST.
OROVILLE, CA 95965

88.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF BUTTE
CHICO COURTHOUSE
655 OLEANDER AVE.
CHICO, CA 95926

89.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF BUTTE
PARADISE COURTHOUSE
747 ELLIOTT RD.
PARADISE, CA 95969

90.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ALAMEDA
ALAMEDA COURTHOUSE
2233 SHORELINE DR.
ALAMEDA, CA 94501

91.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LASSEN
SUSANVILLE COURTHOUSE
220 S. LASSEN ST
SUSANVILLE, CA 96130

92.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF FRESNO
FIREBAUGH DIVISION
1325 “O” STREET
FIREBAUGH, CA 93622

93.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF KERN
ARVIN-LAMONT BRANCH
12022 MAIN ST
LAMONT, CA 93241

94.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SHASTA
BURNEY DIVISION
20509 SHASTA ST
BURNEY, CA 96013

95.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF MONTEREY
MONTEREY DIVISION
1200 AGUAJITO RD.
MONTEREY, CA 93940

96.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF MARIN
SAN RAFAEL DIVISION
P.O BOX 4988
3501 CIVIC CENTER DR
SAN RAFEAL, CA 94913

97.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SANTA BARBARA
SANTA MARIA DIVISION
312-C E. COOK ST.
SANTA MARIA, CA 93454

98.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN JOAQUIN
STOCKTON BRANCH
222 E. WEBER AVE.
STOCKTON, CA 95202

99.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF TULARE
TULARE DIVISION
425 KERN ST.,
P.O BOX 1136
TULARE, CA 93274

100.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF TULARE
VISALIA CIVIL DIVISION
221 S. MOONEY BLVD
VISALIA, CA 93291

101.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF MERCED
627 W 21ST STREET
MERCED, CA 95340

102.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF STANISLAUS
801 10TH STREET 4TH FL
MODESTO CA 95354

103.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
KERN RIVER BRANCH
7046 LAKE ISABELLA BLVD
LAKE ISABELLA, CA 93240

104.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
CIVIL DEPARTMENT
600 ADMINISTRATION DR
SANTA ROSA, CA 95403

105.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF CONTRA COSTA
2970 WILLOW PASS RD
CONCORD, CA 94519

106.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN MATEO
400 COUNTY CENTER (SECOND FLOOR)
REDWOOD CITY, CA 94063

107.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
CIVIL DIVISION
400 MCALLISTER ST RM 103
SAN FRANCISCO, CA 94102

108.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF FRESNO (FOWLER)
LIMITED CIVIL SELMA DIVISION
2424 MCCALL
SELMA, CA 93662

109.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF TEHAMA
PO BOX 310
RED BLUFF CA 96080

110.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SOLANO
VALLEJO BRANCH
321 TUOLUMNE ST
VALLEJO CA 94590

111.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ALAMEDA
FREMONT HALL OF JUSTICE
394.9 PASEO PADRE PARKWAY
FREMONT CA 94538

112.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF EL DORADO
2850 FAIRLANE COURT
PLACERVILLE CA 95667

113.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA COUNTY OF YOLO
725 COURT ST RM 103
WOODLAND CA 95695

114.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF MERCED
445 “I” ST
LOS BANOS, CA 93635

115.
SUPERIOR COURT OF NEVADA
COUNTY OF NEVADA
NEVADA CITY JUDICIAL DISTRICT
201 CHURCH ST SUITE 5
NEVADA CITY CA 95959

116.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF FRESNO
CLOVIS JUDICIAL DISTRICT
1011 FIFTH ST
CLOVIS CA 93612

117.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF STANISLAUS
MODESTO DIVISION
801 10TH STREET, 4TH FL
MODESTO, CA 95354
118.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF CALAVERAS
SAN ANDREAS DISTRICT
891 MOUNTAIN RANCH RD
SAN ANDREAS CA 95249

119.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SAN BENITO
440 FIFTH ST
HOLLISTER, CA 95023

120.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF MADERA
MADERA DISTRICT
209 W. YOSEMITE AVE.
MADERA CA 93637

121.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
CONTRA COSTA BAY DIVISION
100 37TH STREET
RICHMOND CA 94805

122.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ALAMEDA
OAKLAND COURTHOUSE
CIVIL DIVISION
1225 FALLON ST
OAKLAND, CA 94612

123.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF PLACER
P.O. BOX 619072
ROSEVILLE CA 95661

124.
FAIRFIELD SUPERIOR COURT
600 UNION AVE., HALL OF JUSTICE
FAIRFIELD, CA 94533

125.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF CONTRA COSTA
640 YGNACIO VALLEY ROAD
WALNUT CREEK, CA 94596

126.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF FRESNO
2317 TUOLUMNE
FRESNO, CA 93721

127.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF KERN
311 LINCOLN
TAFT, CA 93268

128.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
12720 NORWALK BLVD
NORWALK, CA 90650

129.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SONOMA
600 ADMINISTRATION DR
SANTA ROSA, CA 95403

130.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF ALAMEDA
5672 STONERIDGE DR
PLEASANTON, CA 94588

131.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SANTA BARBARA
115 CIVIC CENTER PLAZA
LOMPOC, CA 93436

132.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SANTA CLARA
301 DIANA AVENUE
MORGAN HILL, CA 95037

133.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF GLENN
528 SYCAMORE STREET
WILLOWS, CA 95988

134.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF SANTA CRUZ
701 OCEAN ST
SANTA CRUZ, CA 95060

135.
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA
COUNTY OF RIVERSIDE
30755-D AULD RD

Bankruptcy Laws, You Have Seen Nothing Yet! Mortgage Chaos?

27 Oct

by Bankruptcy Law Network

There are many bright Real Estate Attorneys out there. Likewise, there are many bright Bankruptcy Attorneys out there. But I don’t think there are that many bright Bankruptcy Real Estate Attorneys out there. And the few that do exist…..well, I don’t think they worked for the Mortgage Companies. Why? Well if they did, the transfer of loans would not have existed the way that it did for the past several years.

Lately, the big news in foreclosures has been the Ohio cases where Judge Boyko dismissed 14 foreclosures on October 31, 2007, and his Colleague, Judge Kathleen O’Malley of the same court, followed suite ordering another 32 dismissals on November 14, 2007.   But that’s only the beginning. It gets worse.

Add a bankruptcy filing to the mix and it’s like adding gas to the fire and recipe for disaster. The reason is a little bankruptcy code section called 11 USC 544. Basically, that section allows a Trustee appointed by the Bankruptcy Court to avoid non-perfected liens.Non-perfected liens are liens that exist, but are not fully noticed to everyone, sort of like secret liens. It’s like if someone loans you $50,000 and takes a lien out on your house, but never records their lien with the county recorder. If that house sells, the lien is not paid since escrow was not aware of it. Had it been recorded by a “deed of trust” or “mortgage,” the Title Company and Escrow Company would not have closed once they saw it, unless it was paid.

Because of all the crazy real estate financing, securitization, and reselling of all the mortgages, sort of the same thing has happened with all the mortgages and trust deeds, but on a much larger scale. Normally, most states require that when a mortgage or real estate loan is sold or transferred to another lender, certain things must happen to maintain perfection, that is, in order to make sure that lien gets paid at a later date. Generally, the purchaser of the Mortgage has it recorded at the County Recorders Office. This is usually done thru a recorded assignment of the underlying note and mortgage or a new Mortgage being recorded and transfer of the Note.  The Note is the most important part of any Mortgage or Deed of Trust. The Mortgage or Deed of Trust is useless without the Note, and usually can not exist without it. It’s a negotiable instrument, just like a check. So when it’s transferred, it needs to be endorsed, just like a check. So essentially, all real estate has documents recorded to evidence the lien, and which are linked to the “checks.”  Well, this is where the problem lies.

In most of the Mortgage Transfers which took place recently, the Mortgage or Deed of Trust was transferred, but not the Note. Whoops! Why? It was just too expensive to track down every note for every mortgage since they were all bundled up together and sold in large trusts, then resold, resold, etc. Imagine trying to find 1 note among thousands, which were sold in different trust pools over time. Pretty hard to do! So shortcuts happened.  Soon enough, shortcuts were accepted and since there were very little foreclosure activity during the last 7 year real estate bubble, no one really noticed in the few foreclosures that took place. Until recently. That’s where the Ohio cases come in. Times have now changed. That little shortcut stopped the foreclosures in Ohio since the most basic element of any lawsuit is that the party bringing the lawsuit is the “real party in interest.” That is, they are the aggrieved party, injured party, relief seeking party.  So in Ohio, the Judge dismissed all the cases since they did not possess the Notes or Assignments on the date of filing, and technically were not the real party in interest to file the suit at the time.But that maybe only a temporary problem until they find the note or assignment. At that point, they will probably just file the foreclosure lawsuit again. So it’s just a delay.

But the bigger problem exists in Bankruptcy.  You see, once a Bankruptcy Case is filed, the Automatic Stay goes into effect. Everything is frozen. Mistakes can no longer be corrected. And if the lender did not have the note or recorded assignment when the bankruptcy case was filed, it was an “unperfected lien” at the time of filing.  Unperfected liens get removed in Bankruptcy.  So finding the note or recording an assignment after filing will no longer fix the problem! Finding the note or or recording an assignment is now simply too late and futile.  That $12 shortcut may now have cost the lender a $500,000 mortgage!The Bankruptcy Trustee now is in charge, puts his 11 USC 544 hat on, and voila, removes the mortgage! Yes, that house that once had no equity worth $450,000 with $500,000 owed on it, is now FREE AND CLEAR! He sells it, and disburses all the proceeds to the creditors.

California Can Finally Say “Show Me The…..Note!”

26 Oct

Attorneys representing homeowners in all 50 states must undoubtedly feel that their states do not do enough to protect homeowners from preventable foreclosures. In non-judicial states like California, the lack of oversight in the foreclosure process at all levels has led to rampant abuse, fraud and at the very least, negligence. Our courts have done little to diffuse this trend with cases like Chilton v. Federal Nat. Mortg. Ass’n holding: “(n)on-judicial foreclosure under a deed of trust is governed by California Civil Code Section 2924 which relevant section provides that a “trustee, mortgagee or beneficiary or any of their authorized agents” may conduct the foreclosure process.” California courts have held that the Civil Code provisions “cover every aspect” of the foreclosure process, and are “intended to be exhaustive.” There is no requirement that the party initiating foreclosure be in possession of the original note.

Chilton and many other rulings refuse to acknowledge that homeowners have any rights to challenge wrongful foreclosures including Gomes v Countrywide, Fontenot v Wells Fargo, and a long line of tender cases holding that a plaintiff seeking to set aside a foreclosure sale must first allege tender of the amount of the secured indebtedness. Complicating matters further is the conflict between state, federal and bankruptcy cases regarding Civil Code 2932.5 and the requirement of recording an assignment prior to proceeding to foreclosure.
While the specific terms are still evolving, the http://www.nationalmortgagesettlement.com/ information website has released the Servicing Standards Highlights that set forth the basic changes that the banks and servicers have agreed to as part of the settlement. When the AG Settlement is finalized, it will be reduced to a judgment that can be enforced by federal judges, the special independent monitor Joseph Smith, federal agencies and Attorneys General. This judgment can be used by attorneys to define a standard and therefore allow us to fashion a remedy that will improve our chances of obtaining relief for our clients.

Lean Forward

Many have opined about the deficiencies in the AG Settlement, from the lack of investigation to inadequacy of the dollars committed to compensate for wrongful foreclosures, principal reduction or refinancing. The reality is, as tainted as it may be, the AG Settlement leaves us better off than were were for future cases. It does not however, address past wrongs in any meaningful way. The terms make it abundantly clear that this is not the settlement for compensation; if there is any remote possibility of compensation it must be sought in the OCC Independent Foreclosure Review and the homeowner must meet the extreme burden of proving financial harm caused by the wrongful foreclosure. For California, the AG Settlement at best, improves our ability to request crucial documents to challenge wrongful foreclosures which previously were difficult if not impossible to obtain. This will allow us to negotiate better loss mitigation options for clients.

Loan Modification 2008-2011

The homeowner submits an application 10 times, pays on 3 different trial plans, speaks to 24 different representatives who give him various inconsistent versions of status. After two years, and thousands of default fees later, he is advised that the investor won’t approve a modification and foreclosure is imminent. Actually, the truth was that the homeowner was in fact qualified for the modification, the data used for the NPV analysis was incorrect and the investor had in fact approved hundreds of modifications according to guidelines that were known to the servicer from the beginning. How could the AG Settlement not improve on this common scenario?

Foreclosure Rules
14 days prior to initiating foreclosure, the servicer must provide the homeowner with notice which must include:

facts supporting the bank’s right to foreclose
payment history
a copy of the note with endorsements
the identity of the investor
amount of delinquency and terms to bring loan current
summary of loss mitigation efforts
A prompt review of the 14 Day Pre Foreclosure Notice and investigation regarding the securitization aspects of the case can result in the filing of a lawsuit and request for TRO if all terms have not been complied with or the documents provided do not establish the right to foreclose. There will be no issue of tender, prejudice or show me the note that can be raised in opposition by defendants and this is an opportunity that we have not been afforded under current case law. Additionally, a loan level review will reveal improper fees and charges that can be challenged. Deviation from the AG Settlement Servicing Standards should be aggressively pursued through the proper complaint channels.

Loan Modification Guidelines

Notify the homeowner of all loss mitigation options
Servicer shall offer a loan modification if NPV positive
HAMP trial plans shall promptly be converted to permanent modifications
Servicer must review and make determination within 30 days of receipt of complete package
Homeowner must submit package within 120 days of delinquency to receive answer prior to referral to foreclosure (could be problematic since most homeowners are more than 120 days late)
After the loan has been referred to foreclosure, the homeowner must apply for a loan modification within 15 days before sale. Servicer must expedite review.
Servicer must cease all collection efforts while a complete loan modification package is under review or homeowner is making timely trial modification payments
Other significant terms include the requirement that the servicer maintain loan portals where the homeowner can check status which must be updated every ten days, assign a single point of contact to every loan, restriction on default fees and forced placed insurance, modification denials must state reasons and provide document support and the homeowner has 30 days to appeal a negative decision.

Short Sales Will Now Really Be Short

The rules regarding short sales will greatly increase the chances that short sales will be processed in a timely manner and accordingly, will result in more short sales being closed.

Banks/servicers must make short sale requirements public
Banks/servicers must provide a short sale price evaluation upon request by the homeowner prior to listing the property
Receipt of short sale packages must be confirmed and notification of missing documents must be provided within 30 days
Knowledge of all of the new requirements for processing foreclosures, loan modifications and short sales can greatly increase our chances of obtaining successful outcomes for clients. Resolution is the goal, and now, we may have leverage that did not exist before.

Judge Firmat posted these notes on the law and motion calendar to assist attorneys pleading various theories in wrongful foreclosure cases etc

4 Oct

Orange County (Cali) Superior Court Judge Firmat posted these notes on
the law and motion calendar to assist attorneys pleading various
theories in wrongful foreclosure cases etc.  Some interesting
points….

FOOTNOTES TO DEPT. C-15 LAW AND MOTION CALENDARS

Note 1 – Cause of Action Under CCC § 2923.5, Post Trustee’s Sale -
There is no private right of action under Section 2923.5 once the
trustee’s sale has occurred.  The “only remedy available under the
Section is a postponement of the sale before it happens.”  Mabry v.
Superior  Court, 185 Cal. App. 4th 208, 235 (2010).

Note 2 – Cause of Action Under CCC § 2923.6 – There is no private
right of action under Section 2923.6, and it does not operate
substantively.  Mabry v. Superior Court, 185 Cal. App. 4th 208,
222-223 (2010).  “Section 2923.6 merely expresses the hope that
lenders will offer loan modifications on certain terms.”  Id. at 222.

Note 3 – Cause of Action for Violation of CCC §§ 2923.52 and / or
2923.53 – There is no private right of action.  Vuki v. Superior
Court, 189 Cal. App. 4th 791, 795 (2010).

Note 4 –  Cause of Action for Fraud, Requirement of Specificity – “To
establish a claim for fraudulent misrepresentation, the plaintiff must
prove: (1) the defendant represented to the plaintiff that an
important fact was true; (2) that representation was false; (3) the
defendant knew that the representation was false when the defendant
made it, or the defendant made the representation recklessly and
without regard for its truth; (4) the defendant intended that the
plaintiff rely on the representation; (5) the plaintiff reasonably
relied on the representation; (6) the plaintiff was harmed; and, (7)
the plaintiff’s reliance on the defendant’s representation was a
substantial factor in causing that harm to the plaintiff. Each element
in a cause of action for fraud must be factually and specifically
alleged. In a fraud claim against a corporation, a plaintiff must
allege the names of the persons who made the misrepresentations, their
authority to speak for the corporation, to whom they spoke, what they
said or wrote, and when it was said or written.”  Perlas v. GMAC
Mortg., LLC, 187 Cal. App. 4th 429, 434 (2010) (citations and
quotations omitted).

Note 5 –Fraud – Statute of Limitations- The statute of limitations for
fraud is three years.  CCP § 338(d).  To the extent Plaintiff wishes
to rely on the delayed discovery rule, Plaintiff must plead the
specific facts showing (1) the time and manner of discovery and (2)
the inability to have made earlier discovery despite reasonable
diligence.”  Fox v. Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., 35 Cal. 4th 797, 808
(2005).

Note 6 – Cause of Action for Negligent Misrepresentation – “The
elements of negligent misrepresentation are (1) the misrepresentation
of a past or existing material fact, (2) without reasonable ground for
believing it to be true, (3) with intent to induce another’s reliance
on the fact misrepresented, (4) justifiable reliance on the
misrepresentation, and (5) resulting damage.  While there is some
conflict in the case law discussing the precise degree of
particularity required in the pleading of a claim for negligent
misrepresentation, there is a consensus that the causal elements,
particularly the allegations of reliance, must be specifically
pleaded.”  National Union Fire Ins. Co. of Pittsburgh, PA v. Cambridge
Integrated Services Group, Inc., 171 Cal. App. 4th 35, 50 (2009)
(citations and quotations omitted).

Note 7 – Cause of Action for Breach of Fiduciary Duty by Lender -
“Absent special circumstances a loan transaction is at arm’s length
and there is no fiduciary relationship between the borrower and
lender. A commercial lender pursues its own economic interests in
lending money. A lender owes no duty of care to the borrowers in
approving their loan. A lender is under no duty to determine the
borrower’s ability to repay the loan. The lender’s efforts to
determine the creditworthiness and ability to repay by a borrower are
for the lender’s protection, not the borrower’s.”  Perlas v. GMAC
Mortg., LLC, 187 Cal. App. 4th 429, 436 (2010) (citations and
quotations omitted).

Note 8 – Cause of Action for Constructive Fraud – “A relationship need
not be a fiduciary one in order to give rise to constructive fraud.
Constructive fraud also applies to nonfiduciary “confidential
relationships.” Such a confidential relationship may exist whenever a
person with justification places trust and confidence in the integrity
and fidelity of another. A confidential relation exists between two
persons when one has gained the confidence of the other and purports
to act or advise with the other’s interest in mind. A confidential
relation may exist although there is no fiduciary relation ….”
Tyler v. Children’s  Home Society, 29 Cal. App. 4th 511, 549 (1994)
(citations and quotations omitted).

Note 9 – Cause of Action for an Accounting – Generally, there is no
fiduciary duty between a lender and borrower.  Perlas v. GMAC Mortg.,
LLC, 187 Cal. App. 4th 429, 436 (2010).  Further, Plaintiff (borrower)
has not alleged any facts showing that a balance would be due from the
Defendant lender to Plaintiff.  St. James Church of Christ Holiness v.
Superior Court, 135 Cal. App. 2d 352, 359 (1955).  Any other duty to
provide an accounting only arises when a written request for one is
made prior to the NTS being recorded.  CCC § 2943(c).

Note 10 – Cause of Action for Breach of the Implied Covenant of Good
Faith and Fair Dealing – “[W]ith the exception of bad faith insurance
cases, a breach of the covenant of good faith and fair dealing permits
a recovery solely in contract.  Spinks v. Equity Residential Briarwood
Apartments, 171 Cal. App. 4th 1004, 1054 (2009).  In order to state a
cause of action for Breach of the Implied Covenant of Good Faith and
Fair Dealing, a valid contract between the parties must be alleged.
The implied covenant cannot be extended to create obligations not
contemplated by the contract.  Racine & Laramie v. Department of Parks
and Recreation, 11 Cal. App. 4th 1026, 1031-32 (1992).

Note 11 – Cause of Action for Breach of Contract – “A cause of action
for damages for breach of contract is comprised of the following
elements: (1) the contract, (2) plaintiff’s performance or excuse for
nonperformance, (3) defendant’s breach, and (4) the resulting damages
to plaintiff. It is elementary that one party to a contract cannot
compel another to perform while he himself is in default. While the
performance of an allegation can be satisfied by allegations in
general terms, excuses must be pleaded specifically.”  Durell v. Sharp
Healthcare, 183 Cal. App. 4th 1350, 1367 (2010) (citations and
quotations omitted).

Note 12 – Cause of Action for Injunctive Relief – Injunctive relief is
a remedy and not a cause of action.  Guessous v. Chrome Hearts, LLC,
179 Cal. App. 4th 1177, 1187 (2009).

Note 13 – Cause of Action for Negligence – “Under the common law,
banks ordinarily have limited duties to borrowers. Absent special
circumstances, a loan does not establish a fiduciary relationship
between a commercial bank and its debtor. Moreover, for purposes of a
negligence claim, as a general rule, a financial institution owes no
duty of care to a borrower when the institution’s involvement in the
loan transaction does not exceed the scope of its conventional role as
a mere lender of money. As explained in Sierra-Bay Fed. Land Bank
Assn. v. Superior Court (1991) 227 Cal.App.3d 318, 334, 277 Cal.Rptr.
753, “[a] commercial lender is not to be regarded as the guarantor of
a borrower’s success and is not liable for the hardships which may
befall a borrower. It is simply not tortious for a commercial lender
to lend money, take collateral, or to foreclose on collateral when a
debt is not paid. And in this state a commercial lender is privileged
to pursue its own economic interests and may properly assert its
contractual rights.”  Das v. Bank of America, N.A., 186 Cal. App. 4th
727, 740-741 (2010) (citations and quotations omitted).

Note 14 – Cause of Action to Quiet Title – To assert a cause of action
to quiet title, the complaint must be verified and meet the other
pleading requirements set forth in CCP § 761.020.

Note 15 – Causes of Action for Slander of Title – The recordation of
the Notice of Default and Notice of Trustee’s Sale are privileged
under CCC § 47, pursuant to CCC § 2924(d)(1), and the recordation of
them cannot support a cause of action for slander of title against the
trustee.  Moreover, “[i]n performing acts required by [the article
governing non-judicial foreclosures], the trustee shall incur no
liability for any good faith error resulting from reliance on
information provided in good faith by the beneficiary regarding the
nature and the amount of the default under the secured obligation,
deed of trust, or mortgage. In performing the acts required by [the
article governing nonjudicial foreclosures], a trustee shall not be
subject to [the Rosenthal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act].”  CCC §
2924(b).

Note 16 – Cause of Action for Violation of Civil Code § 1632 – Section
1632, by its terms, does not apply to loans secured by real property.
CCC § 1632(b).

Note 17 – Possession of the original promissory note – “Under Civil
Code section 2924, no party needs to physically possess the promissory
note.” Sicairos v. NDEX West, LLC, 2009 WL 385855 (S.D. Cal. 2009)
(citing CCC § 2924(a)(1); see also Lomboy v. SCME Mortgage Bankers,
2009 WL 1457738 * 12-13 (N.D. Cal. 2009) (“Under California law, a
trustee need not possess a note in order to initiate foreclosure under
a deed of trust.”).

Note 18 – Statute of Frauds, Modification of Loan Documents – An
agreement to modify a note secured by a deed of trust must be in
writing signed by the party to be charged, or it is barred by the
statute of frauds.  Secrest v. Security Nat. Mortg. Loan Trust 2002-2,
167 Cal. App. 4th 544, 552-553 (2008).

Note 19 – Statute of Frauds, Forebearance Agreement – An agreement to
forebear from foreclosing on real property under a deed of trust must
be in writing and signed by the party to be charged or it is barred by
the statute of frauds.  Secrest v. Security Nat. Mortg. Loan Trust
2002-2, 167 Cal. App. 4th 544, 552-553 (2008).

Note 20 – Tender – A borrower attacking a voidable sale must do equity
by tendering the amount owing under the loan.  The tender rule applies
to all causes of action implicitly integrated with the sale.  Arnolds
Management Corp. v. Eischen, 158 Cal. App. 3d 575, 579 (1984).

Note 21 – Cause of Action for Violation of Bus. & Prof. Code § 17200 –
“The UCL does not proscribe specific activities, but broadly prohibits
any unlawful, unfair or fraudulent business act or practice and
unfair, deceptive, untrue or misleading advertising. The UCL governs
anti-competitive business practices as well as injuries to consumers,
and has as a major purpose the preservation of fair business
competition. By proscribing “any unlawful business practice,” section
17200 “borrows” violations of other laws and treats them as unlawful
practices that the unfair competition law makes independently
actionable.  Because section 17200 is written in the disjunctive, it
establishes three varieties of unfair competition-acts or practices
which are unlawful, or unfair, or fraudulent. In other words, a
practice is prohibited as “unfair” or “deceptive” even if not
“unlawful” and vice versa.”  Puentes v. Wells Fargo Home Mortg., Inc.,
160 Cal. App. 4th 638, 643-644 (2008) (citations and quotations
omitted).

“Unfair” Prong

[A]ny finding of unfairness to competitors under section 17200 [must]
be tethered to some legislatively declared policy or proof of some
actual or threatened impact on competition. We thus adopt the
following test: When a plaintiff who claims to have suffered injury
from a direct competitor’s “unfair” act or practice invokes section
17200, the word “unfair” in that section means conduct that threatens
an incipient violation of an antitrust law, or violates the policy or
spirit of one of those laws because its effects are comparable to or
the same as a violation of the law, or otherwise significantly
threatens or harms competition.

Cel-Tech Communications, Inc. v. Los Angeles Cellular Telephone Co.,
20 Cal. 4th 163, 186-187 (1999).

“Fraudulent” Prong

The term “fraudulent” as used in section 17200 does not refer to the
common law tort of fraud but only requires a showing members of the
public are likely to be deceived. Unless the challenged conduct
targets a particular disadvantaged or vulnerable group, it is judged
by the effect it would have on a reasonable consumer.

Puentes, 160 Cal. App. 4th at 645 (citations and quotations
omitted).

“Unlawful” Prong

By proscribing “any unlawful” business practice, Business and
Professions Code section 17200 “borrows” violations of other laws and
treats them as unlawful practices that the UCL makes independently
actionable. An unlawful business practice under Business and
Professions Code section 17200 is an act or practice, committed
pursuant to business activity, that is at the same time forbidden by
law. Virtually any law -federal, state or local – can serve as a
predicate for an action under Business and Professions Code section
17200.

Hale v. Sharp Healthcare, 183 Cal. App. 4th 1373, 1382-1383 (2010)
(citations and quotations omitted).

“A plaintiff alleging unfair business practices under these statutes
must state with reasonable particularity the facts supporting the
statutory elements of the violation.”  Khoury v. Maly’s of California,
Inc., 14 Cal. App. 4th 612, 619 (1993) (citations and quotations
omitted).

Note 22 – Cause of Action for Intentional Infliction of Emotional
Distress –  Collection of amounts due under a loan or restructuring a
loan in a way that remains difficult for the borrower to repay is not
“outrageous” conduct.  Price v. Wells Fargo Bank, 213 Cal. App. 3d
465, 486 (1989).

Note 23 – Cause of Action for Negligent Infliction of Emotional
Distress – Emotional distress damages are not recoverable where the
emotional distress arises solely from property damage or economic
injury to the plaintiff.  Butler-Rupp v. Lourdeaux, 134 Cal. App. 4th
1220, 1229 (2005).

Note 24 – Cause of Action for Conspiracy – There is no stand-alone
claim for conspiracy.  Applied Equipment Corp. v. Litton Saudi Arabia
Ltd., 7 Cal. 4th 503, 510-511 (1994).

Note 25 – Cause of Action for Declaratory Relief – A claim for
declaratory relief is not “proper” since the dispute has crystallized
into COA under other theories asserted in other causes of actions in
the complaint.  Cardellini v. Casey, 181 Cal. App. 3d 389, 397-398
(1986).

Note 26 – Cause of Action for Violation of the Fair Debt Collection
Practices Acts – Foreclosure activities are not considered “debt
collection” activities.  Gamboa v. Trustee Corps, 2009 WL 656285, at
*4 (N.D. Cal. March 12, 2009).

Note 27 – Duties of the Foreclosure Trustee – The foreclosure
trustee’s rights, powers and duties regarding the notice of default
and sale are strictly defined and limited by the deed of trust and
governing statutes.  The duties cannot be expanded by the Courts and
no other common law duties exist.  Diediker v. Peelle Financial Corp.,
60 Cal. App. 4th 288, 295 (1997).

Note 28 – Unopposed Demurrer – The Demurrer is sustained [w/ or w/o]
leave to amend [and the RJN granted].  Service was timely and good and
no opposition was filed.
Failure to oppose the Demurrer may be construed as having abandoned
the claims.  See, Herzberg v. County of Plumas, 133 Cal. App. 4th 1,
20 (2005) (“Plaintiffs did not oppose the County’s demurrer to this
portion of their seventh cause of action and have submitted no
argument on the issue in their briefs on appeal.  Accordingly, we deem
plaintiffs to have abandoned the issue.”).

Note 29 – Responding on the Merits Waives Any Service Defect – “It is
well settled that the appearance of a party at the hearing of a motion
and his or her opposition to the motion on its merits is a waiver of
any defects or irregularities in the notice of the motion.”  Tate v.
Superior Court, 45 Cal. App. 3d 925, 930 (1975) (citations omitted).

Note 30 – Unargued Points – “Contentions are waived when a party fails
to support them with reasoned argument and citations to authority.”
Moulton Niguel Water Dist. v. Colombo, 111 Cal. App. 4th 1210, 1215
(2003).

Note 31 – Promissory Estoppel – “The doctrine of promissory estoppel
makes a promise binding under certain circumstances, without
consideration in the usual sense of something bargained for and given
in exchange. Under this doctrine a promisor is bound when he should
reasonably expect a substantial change of position, either by act or
forbearance, in reliance on his promise, if injustice can be avoided
only by its enforcement. The vital principle is that he who by his
language or conduct leads another to do what he would not otherwise
have done shall not subject such person to loss or injury by
disappointing the expectations upon which he acted. In such a case,
although no consideration or benefit accrues to the person making the
promise, he is the author or promoter of the very condition of affairs
which stands in his way; and when this plainly appears, it is most
equitable that the court should say that they shall so stand.”  Garcia
v. World Sav., FSB, 183 Cal. App. 4th 1031, 1039-1041 (2010)
(citations quotations and footnotes omitted).

Note 32 – Res Judicata Effect of Prior UD Action – Issues of title are
very rarely tried in an unlawful detainer action and moving party has
failed to meet the burden of demonstrating that the title issue was
fully and fairly adjudicated in the underlying unlawful detainer.
Vella v. Hudgins, 20 Cal. 3d 251, 257 (1977).  The burden of proving
the elements of res judicata is on the party asserting it.  Id. The
Malkoskie case is distinguishable because, there, the unlimited
jurisdiction judge was convinced that the title issue was somehow
fully resolved by the stipulated judgment entered in the unlawful
detainer court.  Malkoskie v. Option One Mortg. Corp., 188 Cal. App.
4th 968, 972 (2010).

Note 33 – Applicability of US Bank v. Ibanez – The Ibanez case, 458
Mass. 637 (January 7, 2011), does not appear to assist Plaintiff in
this action.  First, the Court notes that this case was decided by the
Massachusetts Supreme Court, such that it is persuasive authority, and
not binding authority.  Second, the procedural posture in this case is
different than that found in a case challenging a non-judicial
foreclosure in California.  In Ibanez, the lender brought suit in the
trial court to quiet title to the property after the foreclosure sale,
with the intent of having its title recognized (essentially validating
the trustee’s sale).  As the plaintiff, the lender was required to
show it had the power and authority to foreclose, which is
established, in part, by showing that it was the holder of the
promissory note.  In this action, where the homeowner is in the role
of the plaintiff challenging the non-judicial foreclosure, the lender
need not establish that it holds the note.

Note 34 – Statutes of Limitations for TILA and RESPA Claims – For TILA
claims, the statute of limitations for actions for damages runs one
year after the loan origination.  15 U.S.C. § 1640(e).  For actions
seeking rescission, the statute of limitations is three years from
loan origination.  15 U.S.C. § 1635(f).  For RESPA, actions brought
for lack of notice of change of loan servicer have a statute of
limitation of three years from the date of the occurrence, and actions
brought for payment of kickbacks for real estate settlement services,
or the conditioning of the sale on selection of certain title services
have a statute of limitations of one year from the date of the
occurrence.  12 U.S.C. § 2614.

Here is what not to do Get an injunction, then not post the Bond, then file a frivilious appeal

3 Sep

Filed 4/16/12

CERTIFIED FOR PUBLICTION

IN THE COURT OF APPEAL OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA

SECOND APPELLATE DISTRICT

DIVISION SIX

JANE BROWN,

Plaintiff and Appellant,

v.

WELLS FARGO BANK, NA,

Defendant and Respondent.

2d Civil No. B233679

(Super. Ct. No. 56-2010-00378817-CU-OR-VTA)

(Ventura County)

Some appeals are filed to delay the inevitable.  This is such an appeal.  It is frivolous and was ” ‘dead on arrival’ at the appellate courthouse.”  (Estate of Gilkison (1998) 65 Cal.App.4th 1443, 1449.)

Jane Brown was/is in default on a home mortgage.  Foreclosure proceedings were commenced and she filed suit to prevent the sale of her home.  She appeals from a June 8, 2011 order dissolving a preliminary injunction and allowing the sale to go forward.  This was attributable to her failing to deposit $1,700 a month into a trust account as ordered by the trial court.  The preliminary injunction required that the money be deposited in lieu of an injunction bond.  (Code Civ. Proc., § 529, subd. (a).)

In her opening brief appellant claims that the order dissolving the injunction is invalid because it issued “ex parte.”  After calendar notice was sent to him, trial and appellate counsel, Jason W. Estavillo, asked that we dismiss the appeal.  We will deny this request.  We will affirm the judgment and refer the matter to the California State Bar for consideration of discipline.

Facts and Procedural History

In 2010 appellant defaulted on her $480,000 World Savings Bank FSB loan secured by a deed of trust.[1]  Wachovia Mortgage, a division of Wells Fargo Bank NA (respondent) recorded a Notice of Trustee’s Sale on May 12, 2010.  The trustee’s sale was postponed to August 9, 2010.

Appellant sued for declaratory/injunctive relief on August 5, 2010.  The trial court granted a temporary restraining order to stop the trustee’s sale.  On September 7, 2010, the trial court granted a  preliminary injunction on condition that appellant deposit $1,700 a month in a client trust account in lieu of a bond.

On June 2, 2011, respondent filed an ex parte application to dissolve the preliminary injunction  because appellant had not made a single payment.  It argued that “we’re facing a deadline under the trustee sale date of next week.  And we have no reason to believe these payments . . . will be made.  She has not paid anything on her mortgage in over two years.  There is no reason to believe she’s going to make this payment.  It’s all been simply a delay tactic.”

Appellant, represented by Mr. Estavillo, appeared at the June 3, 2011 ex parte hearing and argued that the proposed order should not issue ex parte.  The trial court agreed, set a June 8, 2011 hearing date, and told appellant’s trial counsel “to scramble on this.  Find out from your client what she has done or hasn’t done.  And I should tell you that one of the myths that sometimes creeps into this [type of] case is that if the plaintiff is successful, they end up with a free house.  It doesn’t work that way.”  Counsel told the court that he would “make sure” the payments would “get made.”

On June 7, 2011, appellant filed opposition papers but failed to explain why the money was not deposited in lieu of a bond.  Respondent argued that appellant has “not complied with the preliminary injunction.  They have not made a payment.  There is nothing in there about their ability to make the payment . . . .  They have defied [the] court order since December and they continue to do so.”

The trial court dissolved the preliminary injunction and signed the proposed order.   The June 8, 2011 order provides:  “The foreclosure sale scheduled for June 10, 2011 may go forward as scheduled.”

On June 8, 2011, appellant filed a notice of appeal.  The filing of the notice of appeal works as a “stay” of the trial court’s order and stops the trustee’s sale.  (Code Civ. Proc., § 916, subd. (a); Royal Thrift & Loan Co. v. County Escrow, Inc. (2004) 123 Cal.App.4th 24, 35-36.)

Frivolous Appeal

In the opening brief appellant’s counsel feebly argues that respondent failed to make a good cause showing for ex parte relief and that her due process rights were violated.  She prays for reversal of the order allowing sale of her home.  But rather than granting ex parte relief, the trial court agreed to set the matter for hearing.  So, the premise to the sole contention on appeal, the ex parte nature of the order, is false.  Moreover, at the noticed hearing, appellant expressly waived any claim that the hearing was not properly noticed or was irregular.  (Eliceche v. Federal Land Bank Assn. (2002) 103 Cal.App.4th 1349, 1375.)  Waiver aside, the trial court had good cause to “fast track” the hearing.  The Notice of Trustee’s Sale was about to expire and appellant had not deposited money in lieu of an injunction bond, as ordered.  Code of Civil Procedure section 529, subdivision (a) required that the preliminary injunction be dissolved.

Appellant makes no showing that the trial court abused its discretion in dissolving the preliminary injunction.  Nor does she even suggest that there has been a miscarriage of justice.  She complains that the order has the words “ex parte” in the caption.  This is “form over substance” argument.  (Civ. Code, § 3528.)  On appeal, the substance and effect of the order controls, not its label.  (Crtizer v. Enos (2010) 187 Cal.App.4th 1242, 1250; Viejo Bancorp, Inc. v. Wood (1989) 217 Cal.App.3d 200, 205.)

Conclusion

The appellate courts take a dim view of a frivolous appeal.  Here, with the misguided help of counsel, the trustee’s sale was delayed for over two years.  Use of the appellate process solely for delay is an abuse of the appellate  process.  (In re Marriage of Flaherty(1982) 31 Cal.3d 637, 646; see also In re Marriage of Greenberg  (2011) 194 Cal.App.4th 1095, 1100.)   We give appellant the benefit of the doubt. But we have no doubt about appellate counsel’s decision to bring and maintain this appeal, and at the eleventh hour, seek a dismissal.  No viable issue is raised on appeal and it is frivolous as a matter of law.  (See e.g. In re Marriage of Greenberg, supra, 194 Cal.Ap.4th 1095.)  “[R]espondent is not the only person aggrieved by this frivolous appeal.  Those litigants who have nonfriviolous appeals are waiting in line while we process the instant appeal.”  (Estate of Gilkison, supra, 65 Cal.App.4th at p. 1451.)  Respondent has not asked for monetary sanctions.  We have not issued an order to show cause seeking sanctions payable to the court.  But we do not suffer lightly the abuse of the appellate process.

Appellant’s request to dismiss the appeal is denied.  The June 8, 2010 order dissolving the preliminary injunction is affirmed.  Respondent is awarded costs on appeal.  If there is a standard clause awarding attorney fees to the prevailing party in the note and/or deed of trust, respondent is also awarded reasonable attorney fees in an amount to be determined by the trial court on noticed motion.  The clerk of this court is ordered to send a copy of this opinion to the California State Bar for consideration of discipline.  We express no opinion on what discipline, if any, is to be imposed.  (In re Mariage of Greenberg, supra.)

CERTIFIED FOR PUBLICATION.

YEGAN, J.

We concur:

GILBERT, P.J.

PERREN, J.

Henry Walsh, Judge

Superior Court County of Ventura

______________________________

                        Jason W. Estavillo, for Appellant

Robert A. Bailey; Anglin, Flewell, Rasmusen, Campbell & Trytten, for Respondent.


[1] After World Savings Bank FSB issued the loan in 2006, it changed its name to Wachovia Mortgage FSB.  Wachovia Mortgage merged into and became a division of Wells Fargo Bank NA.

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